Preparation of soil fertility maps

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  • Food production has to double - without using more water, more fertilisers and more land, by 2050, if there is to be enough to feed the world. The answer is improved soil fertility. If not depopulate - Perish.

  • purpose

    To make awareness among the farmers, researchers, planners and administrators regarding use of balanced fertilization according to soil test based recommendation and integrated nutrient management for higher and sustainable crop production.

  • Soil fertility maps are integral components of all major land evaluation and land use planning endeavors

    Soil and land resource inventory reportsSoil survey reportsWatershed reportsFertility assessment studies etcExclusive soil information systems for

    consultancy services_ Enviornmental reports_ Industrial purposes (feasibility Assessments)

  • Steps involved in the preparation of soil fertility maps

    Soil sample collection

    Soil analysis

    Fertility maps

  • CartographyPhotogrammetryRemote sensingGIS - Geographic information systemGlobal Positioning Systems (GPS)Cartographic Sciences Remote sensingPhotogrammetryGIS - Geographic information system

  • .GPS A surveying method that uses a set of 24 satellites in geostationary position high above the Earth. Specially designed GPS receivers, when positioned at a point on Earth, can measure the distance from that point to three or more orbiting satellites. The coordinates of the point are determined through the geometric calculations of triangulation. GPS provides accurate geodetic data for any point on the Earth.

  • Aerial photographs

    Aerial photographs are pictures taken by an aerial camera fitted into a plane flying under certain specific conditions of flight.

    Single lens vertical photographs, which are taken in a series of independent overlapping exposures, are ideal for soil resource inventory. They have a convenient size for field survey and map construction, give excellent detail of ground features and permit stereoscopic study.

  • Vertical photos

  • Oblique photos

  • Remote sensing

    A method of viewing and acquiring information with out any physical contact through EMR on the Earth's surface from an airplane, balloon, or satellite (or, for the ocean floor, from a vessel).

    The principal technologies used to collect data remotely through electromagnetic radiation (EMR), radar, and sonar in digital form. The data are later processed into images.

  • SpatialresolutionGeo eye

  • GIS A computer-based information system designed to handle geo-referenced data. GIS is used to capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, display and output a full range of geographical data. Output can be in many forms: either as tables, graphics, or maps.

  • Selection of sampling locations

    A. Before field: When large areas are of concern

    assisted with Imageries, topo sheets photogrammetry, cadastral maps and interpretation with GISSample

  • Sample

  • Cadastral sheet (scale 1: 5000)

  • Sampling strategies for fertility assessment and mapping

    noStudy areastrategyGPSGISRS1Districts, states (wide geogr. areas covered}Random samplingyesyesyes2Village/ panchayat/ watershedsGrid/zig zagyesyesyes

    3Fertility assessment of problem areasIntensive samplingyesyesNot necessary4Indls / groupsLocalisedYes/noYes/noNot necessary

  • Selection of sampling locationsB. At field : Surveyors judgment1, when sufficient previous data not available2, Small areas are mapped3, when pre-selection is not necessary

  • Steps involved in the preparation of soil fertility mapsA. Soil sample collection

    Systematic and scientific soil sampling

  • Soil sampling procedure- rulesThe accuracy and utility of a soil test result is influenced by the laboratory analysis but may be influenced even more by the quality and precision of the soil sampling.

  • A Good Soil Sample Should Be Representative of the Area

  • Soil sampling procedure- rulesPoints to be considered:Collect during fallow period.In the standing crop, collect samples between rows.Sampling at several locations in azig-zagpattern ensures homogeneity.Fields, which are similar in appearance, production and past-management practices, can be grouped into a single sampling unit.Collect separate samples from fields that differ in colour, slope, drainage, past management practices like liming, gypsum application, fertilization, cropping systemetc.

  • Avoid sampling in dead furrows, wet spots, areas near main bund, trees, manure heaps and irrigation channels.For shallow rooted crops, collect samples up to 15 cm depth. For deep rooted crops, collect samples up to 30 cm depth. For tree crops, collect profile samples.Always collect the soil sample in presence of the farm owner who knows the farm better.Test the soil before crop establishment and subsequently every three years for perennial crops and for annual crops it would be good practice to sample soil annually or at least biennially

  • Procedure for collection and preparation of soil sampleshomogenous units based on the visual observation and farmers experience.Remove the surface litter at the sampling spot.Drive the auger to a plough depth of 15 cm and draw the soil sample.Collect at least 10 to 15 samples from each sampling unit and place in a bucket or tray.If auger is not available, make a V shaped cut to a depth of 15 cm in the sampling spot using spade.Remove thick slices of soil from top to bottom of exposed face of the V shaped cut and place in a clean container.

  • 1 inch / 2.5 cm 6 inches (15 cm)

  • Compartmentalization

  • Soil sampling depth

    Sl.No.CropSoil sampling depth (cm)1Grasses and grasslands52Rice, finger millet, groundnut, pearl millet, small milletsetc.(shallow rooted crops)153Cotton, sugarcane, banana, tapioca, vegetablesetc. (deep rooted crops)224Perennial crops, plantations and orchard cropsThree soil samples at 30, 60 and 90 cm

  • Frequency of sampling

    Cropping systemfrequencyLawn and ornamental areas Every two to three yearsVegetable gardens/ homesteads Every one to two yearsPlantationsThree to five years

  • 2. Soil analysisAsoil testis theanalysisof asoilsample to determine nutrientandcontaminatedcontent, composition, and other characteristics such as theacidityorpH level. A soil test can determinefertility, or the expected growth potential of the soil which indicates nutrient deficiencies, potential toxicities from excessive fertility and inhibitions from the presence of non-essentialtrace elements..Steps involved in the preparation of soil fertility maps

  • Dept of Soil survey & Soil conservation, Kerala

  • Dept of Soil survey & Soil conservation, Kerala

  • Dept of Soil survey & Soil conservation, Kerala

  • Status- Kerala

    Dept of Agrl. KeralaDept of SS and SCNumber of Soil Testing Laboratories 24. (14 dist labs, 9 mob, 1 soil & Pl. health care lab) 7 labs across the stateAnnual analyzing capacity 2,88,000 soil samples per annum1,10,000 soil samples per annumCapacity Utilization 65% 75%Review of functioningby the Chief Soil Chemist and the Director of Agriculture. By principal soil chemist & Director of Dept of SS & SCNumber of Soil Health Cards issued during 2011-12 (up to 9/11) approx. 50,500 soil health cards were issued.Duing 2014 approx 15 000 SHC were issued.Preparation of soil fertility map Fertility maps have been prepared up to the year, 2012Fertility maps have been prepared until the last year

    Involvement of State Agricultural University(s) recommendations is given in the soil health cards, based on the package of practices standardized by the KAU. recommendations is given in the soil health cards, based on the package of practices standardized by the KAU

  • Steps involved in the preparation of soil fertility maps

    3. Preparation of fertility mapsMajor functions are. 1. Spatial indicators of limitations and potentials of soils2. Indispensible instruments for formulating, establishing and maintaining site specific soil fertility programmes3. A tool in farmer education and awareness campaigns4. Easy devices for predicting the behavioral pattern of soils

  • GISRS dataPhotogrammetryGPS dataField checkSoil analytical adataSoil fertility maps

  • Preparation of fertility mapsWhy GISSoil samples were not geo-referencedNo validation of prepared mapsCreation of Data base secondary and micronutrientsSTCR Recommendations for any particular field by selecting through GIS based fertility maps

    Transfer of generated technology to the farmers through govt. agencies and NGOS.Various analysis and decision supporting tools (Seggregation, isolation, selection, buffering etc) Storage, Modification, interpretation, retrieval

  • Some thematic maps in GIS..

  • 5 Figure shows a global map of soil erosion vulnerability and includes a photograph of water and wind erosion.*

  • 6. Soil fertility is indicated by hue, whereas the percentage of the gridcell currently being used as cropland is indicated by colour saturation (with white indicating the absence of cropland in a grid cell).*

  • 7. The dominant chemical degradation type was the reduction in soil fertility (92.7% of the total country area affected by chemical degradation) resulting from the decrease in the availability of soil minerals and organic matter.*

  • 8. Biomass plant material and animal waste can be used to create transportation fuels and generate el