Protestant Reformation 1517
William Shakespeare: English Renaissance writerThe fool doth think he is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool. William Shakespeare, As You Like It
Love all, trust a few, do wrong to none. William Shakespeare, All's Well That Ends Well
Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind,And therefore is winged Cupid painted blind. William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream
Be not afraid of greatness. Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and others have greatness thrust upon them. William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night
Renaissance Writer Critical Intro.William Shakespeare Which is your favorite and why? Also how does the quote reflect Renaissance thinking?
Protestant Reformation 1517
Renaissance's effectPeople began to question their lives and authority
Catholic Church had been biggest authority of the Middle Ages.
I. Conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church in RomeA. Merchants challenged the Churchs opposition to usury (charging interest)B. German & Eng. nobility disliked Italian domination of the ChurchC. Churchs great political power & wealth caused conflictD. Corruption & sale of indulgences
II. Church Dissenters prior to Martin LutherA. John Wycliffe English philosopher1320 -1384Led movement of opposition to medieval ChurchForerunner of the ReformationB. Jan Huss Czech priest1369-1415Church reformerTried & burned for heresy
Martin Luther nails 95 Theses to church door in Wittenberg, Germany - 1517
III. Martin Luther- 1517German monkQuestioned Churches practices such as:Sale of indulgences by Johann Tetzel building a church selling forgiveness for sinsAutomatic trip to heaven
"As soon as a coin in the coffer rings / the soul from purgatory springs."
The Lutheran TraditionViews: Salvation by faith aloneBible = ultimate authorityBible should be in vernacularPriests; no special powersAll humans are equal before God
The Lutheran TraditionActions: 95 Theses95 things church is doing wrongNailed to church door in Wittenburg, GermanyBirth of Protestant Church
Martin LutherErasmusHow bout that Reformation
The Lutheran TraditionLuther writes down his 95 Theses (95 things church is doing wrong) and nails them to the church in Wittenberg (Germany)
Martin LutherFaith Alone will save youAll should read the Bible in their own vernacular (language)Priests do not have special powersSimplify the sacraments to baptism and communionReligious Education for all.
How will people react?How will the church react?
Churchs ReactionWant Martin Luther to recant (take back) what he said @ Diet of Worms
Diet group/assemblyWorms is a place in Germany
Luther says NO!!!!!!!!!!
Hier stehe ich. Ich kann nicht anders. Gott helfe mir. Amen." ("Here I stand. I can do nothing else. God help me. Amen.")
He is excommunicated from church and forced into hiding for the rest of his life
Results of Luthers actions?- Opened peoples eyes to corruption of the churchnew churches created based on own beliefs ex John Calvin-- CalvinismEx. Protestant, Lutheran, Baptists, Puritans, Methodists, Calvinists, and so on.
IV. John Calvin Calvinism A. French lawyer - moved to religious community in Geneva, Switzerland
B. Main Concept = PREDESTINATION - God has already decided who is saved/condemned. Faith Alone saves youFaith revealed by living a righteous life.Strong work ethic
John Calvin - CalvinismC. Actions of Calvinists?Expansion of the Protestant movement in Europe
The Calvinist traditionActions:Expansion of the Protestant movementSpreads to France, Germany, Netherlands, Scandinavia, ScotlandScottish Presbyterians, American Baptists, Puritans, from this branch.
Spread of Calvinist Beliefs 24
The Calvinist traditionViews:Predestination - God has already decided who is saved/condemned.Faith revealed by living a righteous lifeWork ethic
CalvinismSpreads to France, Germany, Netherlands, Scandinavia, ScotlandScottish Presbyterians, American Baptists, Puritans, from this branch.
V. Henry VIII of EnglandA. Break From ChurchWished to divorce Catherine of AragonPope refused to grant divorceHenry dismissed the authority of the Pope
Henry VIII of EnglandB. Act of Supremacy - 1534The King is head of the national church in England (Anglican Church), not the Pope!!
C. Actions:DivorcedBroke w/RomeTook lands & wealth of Roman Catholic Church in England
VI. Queen Elizabeth IA. Anglican ChurchCreates formality & separateness of Anglican ChurchBook of Common Prayer - for Anglican services
Queen Elizabeth IB. Impacts on Reformation
Tolerance for dissenters (Catholics & Protestants)Reduced religious tension
Expansion & colonialismSpread Protestantism
Queen Elizabeth I Exploration = Spread of Protestantism
Queen Elizabeth IC. Victory over Spanish Armada (Navy) (1588)Catholic Spain attacking Protestant EnglandProtestantism wins over Catholicism.
VII. Reformation in GermanyA. Religious & State Rivalries Emerge Thirty Years WarNorthern Germany princes convert to ProtestantismEnd authority of Pope in their statesAustrian Habsburg family & Holy Roman Empire continue to support RCC Fighting ensues.Ends with Treaty of Westphalia Religious choice
VIII. Reformation in FranceA. Edict of Nantes - 1598Catholic monarchy grants Huguenots (French Protestants) religious freedomLater revoked
Reformation in France B. Increased centralized power1. Cardinal RichelieuFrench Prime MinisterChanged focus of 30 Years War from religious to political.
Reformation in FranceIncreased centralized power2. ActionsOppose Habsburg/Spanish aggression/influenceReturned restrictions on HuguenotsReduced taxation on nobilityAdvanced concept of AbsolutismMake France most powerful.
IX. Role of Printing PressA. Growth of literacy stimulated by Gutenberg printing pressB. Bible printed in Eng., Fr., & Ger.C. Spread ideas of Ref. and Ren.
X. The COUNTER-ReformationOr,The Catholic ChurchStrikes Back!!
A. 1545 Council of TrentDetermined what was heresy (against church teachings)Reaffirmed most church doctrine & practicesLaunched the Inquisition, and the Jesuits
B. The Society of Jesus - JesuitsFounded to spread Catholic doctrine around the worldStop spread of Protestantism
C. The InquisitionCatholic Churchs prosecution of hereticsThousands killed/imprisoned
Galileo heliocentric theory doesntwork for Catholic Church
XI. Changing IdeasA. Growth of:SecularismIndividualismReligious tolerance
B. THE REFORMATIONENDED CHURCH UNITY IN WESTERN EUROPE