MUSLIMS &NON MUSLIMS
Normal Relations between Muslims and non MuslimsPeace, tolerance, compassion, and good relationships are the normal, and original state between Muslims and Non-Muslims. Islam promotes and protects this good relationship. Animosity and war are exceptions to this original state, When these exceptions do not exist, then we should return to the original peaceful state
QURANIC FOUNDATIONS OF MUSLIM/NON-MUSLIM RELATIONS1. Faith in the One Universal God [Allah in Arabic) Allah is One and is impartial toward His creation. He provides for all, including those who reject faith in Him, or even those who defy Him. He cares for the well being of all and gives them ample opportunity to repent to Him and end the state of separateness suffered by those who reject Him or are unmindful of Him.
2- Unity and universality of the core teachings of all prophetsThat core message is peace in submission to Allah; literally Islam. According to the Quran, a Muslim must accept, revere and believe in all the prophets of Allah, without discrimination. They all represent one brotherhood of faith extending vertically to include many generations and horizontally to embrace all humanity.
In the Quran we read: we [Muslims] make no distinction between any of His messengers [i.e. Gods messengers] 2:285
3. Universal Human dignityThe Quran gives various reasons why each human being must be honored Human beings are dignified on account being human irrespective of his or her chosen beliefs. Such honor is symbolized by the way the Quran describes Allahs creation of the human in the best of molds. (95:4) Allah commanded the angels to bow down in respect to Adam (2:43)The Quran describes the human as the trustee of Allah on earth (2:30)
4- Universal JusticeThe Arabic term for justice is Adl means to be in a state of equilibrium, to be balanced.That balance is inherent in the cosmic order and ecology as much as it is inherent in spiritual and ethical values. The Quran warns against disturbing that balance.(55:5-9) Justice is a universal concept that should be observed without nepotism, even with the enemy:
O you who believe! Stand out for justice, as witnesses to Allah, and even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be [against] rich or poor 4:134
5. Universal human brotherhood
Addressing the entire human race, the Quran states: O humankind! We [Allah] have created you from a single [pair] of a male and a female and have made you into nations and tribes, so that you may come to know one another. Verily, the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous [or Allah-conscious] of you. Surely, Allah is all-knowing, all-aware 49:13. It must be noted that this verse begins with O humankind, an address that embraces all. It reminds humanity that they belong to one family, with the same set of parents
6. Acceptance of plurality in human societiesWhile the notion of plurality is not new to those who are familiar with the Quran. The Quran reminds all that if God willed, he would have made of all mankind one nation
If Allah had so willed He would have made you a single people but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you:[5:48)
If thy Lord had so willed He could have made mankind one People .(11:118].
Acceptance of plurality Likewise, the Quran states that had it been Gods will, He would have made all believer
If it had been the Lord's Will they would all have believed all who are on earth! Wilt thou then compel mankind against their will to believe! [10:99].Acceptance of plurality does not mean accepting the plurality of ultimate truths, nor does it preclude sharing ones faith with others and even inviting them to it. Plurality means peaceful co-existence with those who hold differing beliefs and convictions
7. Prohibition of compulsion in faithIn numerous verses in the Quran compulsion in religion is forbidden
There shall be no coercion in matters of faith.2:256,
And so [O Prophet], exhort them; your task is only to exhort. You cannot compel them [to believe]. As for one who turns away, being bent on denying the truth, him/her will God cause the greatest suffering [in the life to come]. For verily, unto Us will be their return, and verily, it is for Us to call them to account. 88:21-26,
No coercion in religion
Had your Lord so willed, all those who live on earth would surely have attained faith, will you then compel people, against their will, to believe? [10:99].
But if they turn away [from accepting Allahs message, then know that] We have not sent you to be their keeper. Your duty is only to convey [the message] 42:48
8. Universal MercyThe essence of Islam and its prophets mission is summed up in the following verse:
And [thus, O Muhammad], We have not sent you, but as mercy to all the worlds 21:107. To remove any particularization of this mercy, the Prophet Muhammad [P] explained that mercy is not being merciful to ones companion but merciful to all. He also explained He who is not merciful to others, will not be treated mercifully
9. Universal peaceful co-existenceThe basic rule governing the relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims is that of peaceful co-existence, justice and compassion. (60:8)
Birr means more than kindness, since it includes also love and respectOther scholars argue that the Quranic term Qist means going beyond justice by giving more than what is due to others. (ibn Al Arabi, Qurtubi)
10. Peaceful dialogueThe Quran accords the People of the Book [Jews and Christians] a special position. The very term to designate them distinguishes them from others such as idolatrous Arabs
Those who reject (Truth) among the People of the Book and among the Polytheists were not going to depart (from their ways) until there should come to them Clear Evidence[98:1]. It is a complimentary title as it acknowledges that, like Muslims, their faiths are based on revealed books or scriptures. The Quran exhorts Muslims to engage in peaceful dialogue with Jews and Christians:
Say [O Muslims], O People of the Book! Come to a common term which we and you hold in common: that we shall worship none but Allah, and that we shall not ascribe divinity to none beside Him, and that we shall not take human beings for our lord beside Allah, and if they turn away, then say: bear witness that we submit ourselves unto Him 3:64.
Imams Bukhari, Muslim and AhmadImam Tabari Asma bint Abu Bakr said,I asked Prophet,My mother (Qateelah) who is ill-disposed to Islam, has come to visit me. She wants something from me. Shall I maintain relations with her? He (SAW) replied, Yes, maintain relations with your mother. (Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad) The most correct opinion in understanding the verse (60:8) is that Muslims should be just, fair, and have the best relationship with all Non-Muslims who do not fight against them on account of their religion and do not drive them out of our homes. (Imam Tabari in Tafsir Tabari)
Imam QurtubiImam RaziIn this ayah (60:8), Allah (SWT) has directed to treat justly the non Muslims who are not at war with Muslims. (Tafsir Qurtubi)
Imam Razi(Tafsir Kabir)- Commentators have said that this ayah (60:8) is evidence that there ought to be good relations between Muslims and non Muslims.
Imam MaududiJustice demands that you should not be hostile to those who are not hostile to you It is not justice to treat the enemy and the non-enemy alike. You have every right to adopt a stern attitude towards those who persecuted you for embracing Islam and compelled you to leave your homes and pursued you even after your expulsion. But as for those who were not partners in persecuting you, you should treat them well and should fulfill the right they have on you because of blood and other relationships. (Tafhimul Quran, tafsir Surah Mumtahina)
Sayyid Qutb Islam is a Deen of peace and a conviction of love. It is a system that has compassion to all people. It gathers all people (Muslim and Non-Muslim) under the banner of Allah like brethren in accord and love. There is no obstacle that prevents this from happening except an aggression from its enemies against it and its people. If those enemies show peace, Islam does not want animosity or to start it. Even when the enemies still show animosity, Islam always looks for ways to bring the relationship to normalcy through great conduct and justice(In the Shade of Al-Quran, 6:3544)
GOAL OF Muslims as UmmahTo convey the message of Islam to all people, to deliver it freely, to ensure the freedom of religious beliefs, and to establish justice on earth within the system of Islam"Thus We have made you (Muslims), a just (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind, and the Messenger (Muhammad) be a witness over you( 2:143)You (Muslims) are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind, you enjoining what is good (Al-Ma'roof) and forbidding what is evil (Al-Munkar), and you believe in Allah(2:110)
3 Categories of Non Muslims1- At peace with Muslims- We must treat them with tolerance, patience, kindness and fairness for Allah loves those who are fair2- At war with Muslims-those who fight Muslims for the sake of religion and drive them out of their homelands ,then Allah forbids them from taking them as allies.3- Non Muslims in Islamic State- Non Muslims are obliged to abide by the laws of the land. They are to be treated with kindness, respect, fairness and their worship places are protected.
Steps to establish good relations (Fiqh of Muslim Minorities. By Khalid Abdul-Qader, from pages 574 to 591)Greeting and exchanging visits with them in their homes and places of worship. Als