Roseveare recognising non formal and informal learning policy considerations for japan

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  • 1. Recognising non-formal and informal learning Policy considerations for JapanDeborah RoseveareOECD6 March 2011

2. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 2 3. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 3 4. Key principlesFormal learning learning through a programme of instruction in: An educational institution Adult training centre Workplace learning centrethat usually results in a qualification of certificate 4 5. Key principlesNon-formal learning Learning through a programme that is not usuallyevaluated and does not lead to a qualification of certificateInformal learning Learning resulting from daily work-related, family or leisure activities5 6. Key principles RNFIL is a competence-based approach.Competence means being able to do something to a definedstandard RNFIL focuses on what a person can donot how they learnt to do it RNFIL provides independent verificationof what a person can do 6 7. Key principles RNFIL is concerned with practice, not theory(or with practice in applying theory) Someone may know the theory of electricity but can they change a light bulb safely? 7 8. Key principles RNFIL is not concerned with how competency is acquiredChef A learns to cook at a cooking schoolChef B learns to cook from his or her motherAll that matters to the diners is whether the chef can cook! 8 9. Key principles RNFIL is concerned with verifying what people can do Assessing competencies Providing a valid certification of competencies 9 10. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 10 11. Benefits RNFIL generates economic benefits It reduces the direct and the opportunity cost of formal learning by allowing people to: progress more rapidly through education avoid wasting time on courses already mastered move more easily across education pathways It encourages people to learn in most cost-effective ways It makes it easier for employers to see what job applicants are able to do and help workers to show what they can do It can facilitate structural adjustment and better job/skill matching, especially for displaced workers11 12. Benefits RNFIL generates educational benefits It makes learning more visible It assists people in identifying current strengths and weaknesses and valuing what they can already do It fosters individual responsibility for career development and progression by encouraging people to gain competencies through experience It makes it more attractive to firms and individuals to invest in training It underpins lifelong learning 12 13. Benefits RNFIL generates social benefits It improves equity and strengthens access to: further education the labour market It can be especially relevant for: disadvantaged groups (e.g. minorities, immigrants) disaffected youth older workers (who usually have a lot of experience but also fewer formal qualifications than younger workers) 13 14. Benefits RNFIL generates psychological benefits It improves well-being by: making individuals aware of their capabilities validating their worth boosting their self-confidence14 15. Benefits To deliver these benefits, RNFIL processes must be well-designed and implemented properly Benefits only realised if society accepts RNFIL certifications RNFIL generates benefits but also has costs need careful assessment of benefits and costs and comparison with formal education alternatives focus on competencies with high labour market value ensure procedures do not produce misleading information about competencies 15 16. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 16 17. Key elements for success Embed RNFIL policies within broader economic strategyand policy framework: integrate with lifelong learning policies encourage emphasis on learning outcomes and competencies across all education settings integrate with labour market policy settings17 18. Key elements for success Clarify main purpose(s) and priorities of RNFIL system improving access to further formal education better matching of people and jobs in the labour market assisting specific groups Identify which instruments are appropriate for whichpurpose, e.g. general competency assessment specific competencies that can be recognised alternative route to obtaining national qualifications 18 19. Key elements for success Supporting national qualifications framework (NQF) National qualifications frameworks are designed to: facilitate progression through education and training provide horizontal equivalence provide information to labour market participants(employers and employees) Ideally would specify competencies for qualifications but often input based (e.g. number of class hours) Importance depends on labour market arrangements NQFs can improve transparency about qualifications, but it depends on good design and implementation19 20. Key elements for success Improve information about RNFIL so that: Individuals know that the option is available Employers and society understand the competency principles that underpin RNFIL information about qualifications that can be obtained by RNFIL is easy to find Provide information through services dealing with thosemost likely to benefit (job seekers, career guidance,counselling services, etc.)20 21. Key elements for success Develop high quality, robust assessment systems that are: valid transparent consistent Use appropriate techniques for assessing competencies Develop rigorous quality assurance of assessment centres Use competent evaluators, well-trained in: assessment design and development carrying out assessments21 22. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 22 23. Current challenges in Japan Demographics - shrinking, ageing population Womens labour market participation relatively low Slow growth, intensified global competition anddownsizing of some industries Segmented labour markets and rising share of non-regularworkers. Non-regular workers: receive less firm-based training significant wage gap precarious employment less social safety net coverage 23 24. Current challenges in Japan Profile of workers 2007 %RegularNon-regularAgeUnder 3015.0 16.8 30 to 5982.1 66.7 Over 60 2.916.4Gender Male76.3 23.7 Female42.2 57.8EducationMiddle school 3.5 7.8 High school 39.7 57.3 University36.7 11.8Source: MHLW General Survey of Diversified Types of Employment 2007 24 25. Current challenges in JapanProfile of workers 2007 % RegularNon- regularBy size of company 5 to 2962.337.7(number employees) 30 to 99961.838.2 More than 1 00074.225.8Tenure Less than 1 year3.921.5 1 to 10 years45.865.5 More than 10 years 49.413.0Source: MHLW General Survey of Diversified Types of Employment 2007 25 26. Current challenges in Japan Reasons firms hire non-regular workers 2007 % of respondentsPart-Dispatch Temp(multiple responses possible)timeReduce wage costs41.1 18.8 28.3Cut non-wage costs 21.3 16.68.1Cope with daily or weekly fluctuations in demand 37.2 13.14.5Hire work-ready and experienced workers11.6 35.2 38.3Work on skilled tasks12.7 20.2 43.6Difficulty in finding regular workers17.6 26.0 18.2Facilitate adjustment to business fluctuations 18.0 25.7 15.6Cope with long business hours21.7 3.4 6.4Re-employ older workers 7.9 2.611.0Specialise regular workers in key tasks15.3 20.4 10.6Source: MHLW General Survey of Diversified Types of Employment 200726 27. Current challenges in JapanReasons workers choose non-regular employment 2007% of respondents Part-Dispatch Temp (multiple responses possible) timeWork at convenient times 55.9 17.7 13.5Support family budget42.4 16.1 18.5Balance family and other activities32.0 15.9 11.3Reduce commuting time19.2 8.8 9.3Obtain discretionary money 22.7 17.4 13.5Cannot find regular employment 12.2 37.3 31.5Reduce working time19.2 8.8 9.3Make use of professional qualifications and skills9.0 18.5 37.0Work on easy and less responsible tasks 8.6 12.46.2Avoid being tied down by the company5.8 12.37.0Easy to adjust hours and earnings 7.1 1.6 2.1 Source: MHLW General Survey of Diversified Types of Employment 200727 28. Current challenges in Japan Around 10% make transition from non-regular to regular work More likely Less likely Temp, dispatched workers Part-time workers Younger workers Older workers (over 40) Short spell as non-regular Long spell as non-regular University education Middle school education Health, education sectors Manufacturing Public sector Private sectorSource: Genda Y. (2010), No dignity for Humans The 2000s Labour Market, Minerva Publishing Kyoto.28 29. Current challenges in JapanLabour force participation and share of non-regular workers by age and genderSource: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Labour Force Survey, and LabourForce Survey (Detailed Tabulation) in OECD (2011) Economic Survey Japan, forthcoming 29 30. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 30 31. Policy optionsQualifications Develop a national qualifications system especially forvocational education and other job-relevant competencies Design national qualifications system with full involvement ofemployers and employee representatives to strengthenrelevance, credibility and acceptance Anchor RNFIL within the national qualifications system Develop assessment procedures for awarding nationalqualifications through recognition31 32. Policy optionsJob Card system Expand the Job Card tool to include independentassessment of competencies Expand access to Job Card system to cover a wider range ofindividuals and not only as a tool for job-seekers 32 33. Assessment, evaluation and quality assurance Strengthen capacities to assess and evaluate competencies, develop well-designed, valid, transparent and reliable instruments train sufficient evaluators to match demand Provide quality assurance mechanisms to underpinassessment and evaluation processes and strengthencredibility33 34. Thank you! 34