Scientific work related to water

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<p>Presentacion Sicilia</p> <p>Scientific work related to water</p> <p>, May 2012 Augusta1How we did the workWe studied two rivers (Belelle and Mandeo) and two intertidal zones (Ortigueiras ria and Cobas beach).Dates: November and MarchStudents involved: 1st ESO (12-13 year-olds), 2nd ESO (12-13 year-olds), 3rd ESO (14-15 year-olds), 4th ESO (15-16 year-olds) and 1st Bach (16-17 year-olds)Subjects: Biology, Chemistry and Science for the Contemporary WorldWe worked on the field, in the lab and in class.We organised some conferences about these subjects.Belelle and Mandeo river</p> <p>Ortigueiras ria:situation</p> <p>Ortigueiras ria Cobas beach:situation</p> <p>Cobas beachRiversAspects observed:Parts of the courseFlora and faunaChemical dataAnthropogenic actionPollutionUses: energy, agriculture, recreation</p> <p>6Parts of the rivers course</p> <p>High course- The river has more inclination and carries little water.- Due to the inclination the water is very oxygenated.Middle course- Higher flow; affluents; riparian forest.Low course- Forms part of the estuary.The course of the rivers is divided in three parts:7Parts of the rivers studiedWe only observed and collected data in the middle course and the low course of the rivers.In the middle course the water is more dynamic and has more disolved oxygen, so it is cleaner. This is the part where the water for human supply (consumption) comes from.</p> <p>The middle course of the river</p> <p>The low course of the river</p> <p>The low course is less dynamic and the quantity of disolved oxygen is lower.The low course may be under the influence of tides.</p> <p>Flora: the riparian forestThe riparian forest is one of the most outstanding features of the river bank.It follows the river course.Its important for the conservation of the river course.Common trees: European alder, sycamore plane, hazelnut tree, bay laurel and oak.</p> <p>Flora: the riparian forest</p> <p>Sycamore plane Acer pseudoplatanusHazelnut treeCorilus avellana</p> <p>Alder Alnus glutinosaFlora: the riparian forest</p> <p>Bay laurel Laurus nobilis</p> <p>OakQuercus robur</p> <p>In springIn autumn13Flora</p> <p>Wild saffronRoyal fernOsmunda Regalis</p> <p>Willow - Salix sp.</p> <p>Celery - Apium graveolens </p> <p>FAUNA</p> <p>Chysomela menthastri on mint leafMint beetle</p> <p>Temporary frog</p> <p> Calopterix virgo</p> <p>Salamander</p> <p>Erithacus rubeculaEuropean robin</p> <p>Lutra lutraEuropean otterGerris lacustris15Chemical dataWe measured temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen in the middle course and the low course of the river.</p> <p>Chemical dataPart of the riverTemperaturepHConductivityDissolved oxygenBelelle riverMiddle course9.6 C6.64190 mS/cm8.5 ppmLow course</p> <p>10.1 C7.15251ms /cm8.3 ppmConclusions: The highest pH and conductivity are found in the low course due to the influence of tides.</p> <p>Portable digital Multiline P3 WTWChemical data: low course</p> <p>Chemical data: middle course</p> <p>Anthropogenic actionIts noticeable all along the course of the riverIt has been present for a long time because water is very useful and necessary, as some constructions we found on the way bear witness to. Nowadays, there is still pressure due to the same reasons </p> <p>Some constructions in the river bank20Anthropogenic action</p> <p>The riparian forest has diminished due to the invasion of pastures</p> <p>Pollution</p> <p>We found some sporadic spots in the low course</p> <p>22</p> <p>Uses</p> <p>The uses that we could observe were: household consumption, irrigation, farming usage, power generation, recreational uses WaterwheelIrrigationRecreation23Uses</p> <p>Hydroelectrical plant</p> <p>Public washing place</p> <p>Detour for consumption</p> <p>Recreational uses</p> <p>Agriculture and livestock</p> <p>24Intertidal zonesWe studied two zones:Ortigueiras riaCobas beach</p> <p>Intertidal zoneZone of coast that is under water at high tide and above water at low tide</p> <p>26</p> <p>Intertidal zone: substrate typeHard: rocky</p> <p>27Intertidal zone: substrate typeSoft: sandy-muddy</p> <p>High tide line: supralittoral zoneThe high tide line features species like: </p> <p>Armeria flowersXantoria and Crythmun maritimun</p> <p>Crythmun marking the high tide line29High tide line</p> <p>Yellow Xantoria Zone Green Seaweed ZoneDun Seaweed ZoneRed Seaweed Zone30FLORA: seeweed</p> <p>Dun seaweed</p> <p>Green seaweedRed seaweed</p> <p>31FLORA </p> <p>Salicornia sp.Limonium sp.Examples of plants that arent seaweed32Specific fauna</p> <p>Limpet</p> <p>Anemone</p> <p>Balanus sp.Monodonta sp.Litorina litoralisCarcinus maenas</p> <p>Pollicipes cornucopiaClams / Cardium edule</p> <p>Martesterias glaciarisHoloturia33Intertidal zone: occasional fauna</p> <p>Cormoran </p> <p>Seagull colony</p> <p>Purple sandpiper</p> <p>Rat</p> <p>Anas platyrhynchos</p> <p>Larus argentatus </p> <p>Dolphin family - Calderon34In the lab: seawater study</p> <p>The aim of the study was: To separate the seaweeds pigments by paper chromatography. To extract iodine from seaweed. To measure the density of seawater.A sample of seawater and seaweed was taken to the lab.</p> <p>Seaweed chlorophyll</p> <p>Extracting the pigmentsSeaweed pigmentsFiltering the extract</p> <p>Seaweed pigments</p> <p>Separating the green, red and brown pigments by paper chromatographyDensity of seawater</p> <p>Finding out the density of seawater by weighting Density of sea water. ResultsMass(g)Volume(cm3)Density(g/cm3)25,51251.02025,49251.01925,47251.019Density (g/cm3)1.019</p> <p>The density of sea water in Cobas beach is 1019 kg/m3</p> <p>UsesFishingRecreationEnergy: waterwheel Gathering seaweed for different uses</p> <p>41Changes and pollution</p> <p>Private property, law isnt respected. No public walking path</p> <p>Rats: waste watersDiscarded fishing gear42</p>

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