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  • 1. SHORT STORIES

2. The Bare Bones of a Plot 1. Exposition, or basic situation the opening of the story, when the characters and their conflict are introduced 2. Rising action, or complication the main character takes some action to resolve the conflict 3. Climax the key scene in the story, a tense or exciting or terrifying moment 4. Resolution the end of the story when all of the struggles are over 3. Its Like a Roller Coaster, Baby! Climax RisingAction Exposition FallingAction Resolution Day 1 4. Sequencing of Events Timing: Chronological order events unfold in real time Pacing the speed that an author chooses to let a storys events unfold Playing with Time: Flashback an episode from the past is presented and interrupts the flow of events Flash-forward a jumping ahead into the future Foreshadowing hints or clues that suggest what is to come 5. The Fuel of the Narrative: Conflict Internal Conflict the struggle that takes place in a characters mind or heart human vs. him/herself External Conflict the struggle that takes place outside the character human vs. human human vs. society human vs. nature 6. Sensory Details Setting the time and place the story is set, along with any pertinent background information Details facts, observations, and incidents used to develop a story Imagery language that appeals to one or more of the five senses 7. Context Clue Competition 1. He could see the ship going away from him, receding in the distance. 2. Dont be alarmed, said Rainsford, with a smile he hoped was disarming. 3. Zaroffs whole life was one prolonged hunt. 4. The general smiled the quiet smile of one who has faced an obstacle and surmounted it with success. 5. Zaroff appeared unruffled, even when Rainsford called him a murderer. 6. The protruding cliffs blocked Rainsfords sight of the ocean. 8. Reading Quiz Answer the following questions in complete sentences: 1. What is the most dangerous game? 2. Explain the significance of the last sentence of the story: He had never slept in a better bed, Rainsford decided. 9. Characters Protagonist - the central figure in a story; sometimes a hero Antagonist - the opposing person(s) or force(s) against the protagonist 10. Characters Flat Character - a literary character whose personality can be defined by one or two traits and does not change in the course of the story Round Character - a character in fiction whose personality, background, motives, and other features are fully described by the author 11. Characters Dynamic Character - undergoes an important inner change over the course of the story, as a change in personality or attitude Static Character - undergoes little or no inner change over the course of a story; a character who does not grow or develop 12. THINK-PAIR-SHARE 1. Is Rainsford the protagonist or antagonist? 2. Is Rainsford flat or round? 3. Is Rainsford dynamic or static? DONT FORGET: BACK UP YOUR ANSWER WITH EVIDENCE! 13. HELEN ON EIGHTY- SIXTH STREET 14. Reading Quiz Answer the following questions in complete sentences: 1. What is Vitas family situation? 2. Tell me one of Vitas three wishes. 15. THINK-PAIR-SHARE 1. What is the primary conflict in Helen on Eighty-Sixth Street? 2. Is it an internal or external conflict? DONT FORGET: BACK UP YOUR ANSWER WITH EVIDENCE! 16. Characterization How does an author tell us about a character? 1. Speech dialogue conversation between characters 2. Appearance 3. Private Thoughts 4. How Other Characters Feel 5. Actions motivation the reason a character thinks, feels, or acts the way he/she does 17. Characterization Direct a writer tells us directly what a character is like or what a persons motives are Indirect a writer shows us a character but allows us to interpret for ourselves the kind of person we are meeting 18. Points of View Omniscient the narrator is not in the story and almost never refers to himself or herself directly First person the narrator is a character in the story who talks to the readers using the pronoun I Third person limited the narrator zooms in on one character but talks about that character in third-person 19. Which Point of View? Oh, man! Just as I was finally dozing off, he starts playing that stupid saxophone. Ive already been fired from one job because I fell asleep on the night shift. Now its going to happen again. I dont know which sounds worse, that tone- deaf saxophonist or that yowling dog. Im going to call the police. 20. Which Point of View? He found a good spot in front of Park View Apartments and started playing soulfully on his sax. He wanted an audience and needed money. After one song, he spotted a cute girl at a window, applauding madly. A dog howled with the music, but the sax player let him stay, hoping the dog might attract some donations. Then he heard a man yelling about calling the policeclearly not a music lover. 21. Which Point of View? One day a young woman looked out her apartment window and saw a man playing a saxophone. Cool, she thought as she swayed to his tune. A big brown dog joined the man and howled along with the music. Then a man in pajamas yelled from another window, complaining that the noise woke him up and he was going to call the police. This man, who worked the night shift and had to sleep all day, liked cats better than dogs anyway. 22. Unreliable Narrator An unreliable narrator may not always know the whole truth or many purpose choose to deceive readers. In other words, the narrators credibility is seriously compromised, perhaps by: 1. mental illness 2. immaturity 3. arrogance 4. lying 23. Context Clue Competition 1. Fortunatos drunkenness precluded his total understanding of his fate. 2. The secret catacombs ensured Montresors impunity from his crime. 3. Montresor viewed Fortunatos death as suitable retribution for Fortunatos crimes. 4. I dont wish to impose on your time! lied Montresor. 5. Recoiling, as if in horror, Montresor then walked away. 24. THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO 25. Irony Irony is the word that describes the difference between what we expect or what seems suitable and what actually happens. There are three kinds of irony: 1. Verbal used when someone says one thing but means the opposite 2. Situational describes an event that is not just surprising but actually contrary to what we expected 3. Dramatic occurs when weas readers have information that the characters do not 26. Examples of Verbal Irony My, youve certainly made a mess of your life! said the father to his daughter, who just graduated with honors. Youre my favorite son-in-law, the father said to the man he wished his daughter hadnt married. Isnt this lovely weather were having? Tracy said, looking at the storm through the classroom window. Come, [Zaroff] said, we shouldnt be chatting here. We can talk later. Now you want clothes, food, rest. You shall have them. This is a most restful spot. 27. Examples of Situational Irony A man lights a stress-relief candle to relieve his anxiety, but the candles ends up burning his house down. Sue wanted to attend the city council meeting on traffic jams, but she missed it. She was stuck in traffic! Dorothy travels far to see a wizard who will help her to go home, only to find out that she had the ability to get home by herself the entire time. A killer on the loose raises his gun to shoot another victim. A loud gunshot is heard, and the killer collapses at the feet of the policewoman who caught him. 28. Examples of Dramatic Irony Movie watchers know that the bad guy is standing right behind the potential victim, but the victim never knows! 29. THE SNIPER 30. Reading Quiz Answer the following questions in complete sentences: 1. What does the sniper do to trick his enemy? 2. What discovery does the sniper make at the end of the story? 31. Review: Imagery Imagery is language that appeals to one or more of the five senses. 32. THE MESSAGE A theme is a central message or main idea in a literary work. 1. Its what the author wants you to learn or know. 2. Its a broad idea about life, usually stated in a single sentence. 3. The author usually doesnt come right out and say it. Readers must infer it. 33. Sniper Stations Station 1 Madeline Emma Bennett KRon Kelly Station 2 Easton Daniel Hope Maggie Jordyn Station 3 Janette Ryne Almanzo Payton Eric Station 4 Matthew Mya Sam Kyra Patrick Station 5 Treshon Gibbs Greg Michael 34. LIBERTY 35. Reading Quiz Answer the following questions in complete sentences: 1. Why does Papi name the dog Liberty? 2. Why does the narrator let her dog run free at the end of the story? 36. THE MESSAGE A theme is a central message in a literary work. 1. Its what the author wants you to learn or know. 2. Its a broad statement about life. 3. The author usually doesnt come right out and say it. Readers must infer it. This requires abstract thinking! 37. How to Find the Theme 1. What happens to the main character? Does the character change over the course of the book? If in a good way, maybe the theme is to follow his/her lead If in a negative way, maybe the theme is to avoid doing what they did 2. Often, authors put hints in the title that will point you toward a main theme. 3. Look at the main conflict. What forces are pitted against each other? Who wins and why? 4. Sometimes the author outright states the theme (or has a character do this). 38. Liberty Groups Group 1 Hope Emma Bennett KRon Kelly Group 2 Easton Daniel Madeline Jordyn Gibbs Group 3 Janette Ryne Almanzo Payton Sam Group 4 Matthew Eric Kyra Patrick Group 5 Treshon Greg Michael Maggie Mya 39. THINK-GROUP-SHARE What is the theme of Liberty? Find three examples from the story that support your theme. Be ready to share with the class. Remember: Freedom is not a theme. Thats a subject. 40. Tone A storys tone can be described