Shrimp Culture: Culture of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

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  • May 23, 2016May 23, 2016 11

    Dr. T. K. GhoshDr. T. K. Ghosh Department of Department of AquacultureAquaculture Faculty of Fishery Faculty of Fishery SciencesSciences

    CULTURE OF TIGER CULTURE OF TIGER SHRIMP SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon)(Penaeus monodon)

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    Introduction:Introduction:Penaeus monodonPenaeus monodon (common names include (common names include giant tiger prawngiant tiger prawn, , black tiger prawnblack tiger prawn, , leader prawnleader prawn, , sugposugpo and and grass prawngrass prawn) is a ) is a marine crustacean that is widely reared for food. marine crustacean that is widely reared for food.

    DISTRIBUTION:DISTRIBUTION:The natural distribution is Indo West - pacific, ranging The natural distribution is Indo West - pacific, ranging

    from the eastern coast of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, as from the eastern coast of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, as far as South-east Asia, and the Sea of Japan. They can also be far as South-east Asia, and the Sea of Japan. They can also be found in eastern Australia, and a small number have found in eastern Australia, and a small number have colonised the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal. Further colonised the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal. Further invasive populations have become established in Hawaii invasive populations have become established in Hawaii and the Atlantic coast of the USA (Florida, Georgia and and the Atlantic coast of the USA (Florida, Georgia and South Carolina).South Carolina).

    Both sexes reach approximately 36cm long, and females Both sexes reach approximately 36cm long, and females can weigh up to 650g, making it the world's largest species can weigh up to 650g, making it the world's largest species of prawn.of prawn.

    P. monodonP. monodon is the most widely cultured prawn species in the world. is the most widely cultured prawn species in the world. Over 900,000 tonnes are consumed annually, two-thirds of it coming Over 900,000 tonnes are consumed annually, two-thirds of it coming from farming, chiefly in south-east Asia.from farming, chiefly in south-east Asia.

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    Kingdom: AnimaliaKingdom: Animalia Phylum: ArthropodaPhylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: CrustaceaSubphylum: Crustacea Class: MalacostracaClass: Malacostraca Order: DecapodaOrder: Decapoda Suborder: DendrobranchiataSuborder: Dendrobranchiata Family: PenaeidaeFamily: Penaeidae Genus: Genus: PenaeusPenae us Species: Species: P. mo no do nP. mo no do n Common name : BLACK TIGER SHRIMPCommon name : BLACK TIGER SHRIMP

    Classification:Classification:

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    SHRIMP FARM:SHRIMP FARM:A A shrimp farmshrimp farm is an aquaculture business for is an aquaculture business for

    the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawn for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawn for human consumption. Commercial shrimp farming human consumption. Commercial shrimp farming began in the 1970s, and production grew steeply, began in the 1970s, and production grew steeply, particularly to match the market demands of the particularly to match the market demands of the U.S., Japan and Western Europe.U.S., Japan and Western Europe.

    The total global production of farmed shrimp The total global production of farmed shrimp reached more than 1.6 million tonnes in 2003, reached more than 1.6 million tonnes in 2003, representing a value of nearly 9,000 million U.S. representing a value of nearly 9,000 million U.S. dollars. dollars.

    About 75% of farmed shrimp is produced in About 75% of farmed shrimp is produced in Asia, in particular in China and Thailand.Asia, in particular in China and Thailand.

    The other 25% is produced mainly in Latin The other 25% is produced mainly in Latin America, where Brazil is the largest producer.America, where Brazil is the largest producer.

    The largest exporting nation is Thailand.The largest exporting nation is Thailand.

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    IDENTIFICATION:IDENTIFICATION:The giant tiger prawn inhabits the coasts of Australia, South The giant tiger prawn inhabits the coasts of Australia, South

    East Asia, South Asia and East Africa. Similar to all penaeid shrimp, East Asia, South Asia and East Africa. Similar to all penaeid shrimp, the rostrum well developed and toothed dorsally and ventrally.the rostrum well developed and toothed dorsally and ventrally.

    Carapace without longitudinal or transverse sutures. Cervical Carapace without longitudinal or transverse sutures. Cervical and orbito-antennal sulci and antennal carnage always present.and orbito-antennal sulci and antennal carnage always present.

    Hepatic and antennal spines pronounced. The most distinct Hepatic and antennal spines pronounced. The most distinct features for identification of this species are: fifth pereiopods features for identification of this species are: fifth pereiopods without exopod; hepatic carina horizontally straight; and without exopod; hepatic carina horizontally straight; and gastroorbital carina occupying the posterior half of the distance gastroorbital carina occupying the posterior half of the distance between hepatic spine and postorbital margin of carapace.between hepatic spine and postorbital margin of carapace.

    Depending on substratum, feed and water turbidity, body Depending on substratum, feed and water turbidity, body colours vary from green, brown, red, grey, blue and transverse band colours vary from green, brown, red, grey, blue and transverse band colours on abdomen and carapace are alternated between blue or colours on abdomen and carapace are alternated between blue or black and yellow. black and yellow.

    Adults may reach 33 cm in length and females are commonly Adults may reach 33 cm in length and females are commonly larger than males.larger than males.

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    AnatomyAnatomy

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    VarietyVariety

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    Back ground:Back ground:

    Shrimp farming has been practiced for more than a Shrimp farming has been practiced for more than a century for food and the livelihood of coastal people in some century for food and the livelihood of coastal people in some Asian countries, such as Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan Asian countries, such as Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan Province of China, Thailand and Vietnam.Province of China, Thailand and Vietnam.

    Penaeus monodon was originally harvested together with Penaeus monodon was originally harvested together with other shrimp species from traditional trapping-growing other shrimp species from traditional trapping-growing ponds or as a significant by-product of extensive milkfish ponds or as a significant by-product of extensive milkfish ponds but in the year 1988, P. monodon was recognized as ponds but in the year 1988, P. monodon was recognized as the world's leading producer of farm-raised aquatic the world's leading producer of farm-raised aquatic organisms.organisms.

    Later, the culture of this species spread throughout Later, the culture of this species spread throughout southeast and south Asia, as it can grow-up to a large size southeast and south Asia, as it can grow-up to a large size (40-60 g) with high value and demand in the international (40-60 g) with high value and demand in the international market. market.

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    ContdContd

    The locally adapted culture technology has The locally adapted culture technology has allowed Thai farmers to overcome serious disease, allowed Thai farmers to overcome serious disease, environmental and trade problems and maintain its environmental and trade problems and maintain its status as a leading producer.status as a leading producer.

    The introduction or importation of wild brood The introduction or importation of wild brood stock is commonly practiced among the major stock is commonly practiced among the major producing countries because local supplies are producing countries because local supplies are insufficient and domestication technology has not insufficient and domestication technology has not yet been commercially developed. However, yet been commercially developed. However, disease-free brood stock are highly desirable and disease-free brood stock are highly desirable and some countries require health certification of some countries require health certification of imported stock. imported stock.

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    Main producer countriesMain producer countries : :

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    Habitat and biology :Habitat and biology :Penaeus monodon mature and breed only in tropical Penaeus monodon mature and breed only in tropical

    marine habitats and spend their larval, juvenile, adolescent and marine habitats and spend their larval, juvenile, adolescent and sub-adult stages in coastal estuaries, lagoons or mangrove areas. sub-adult stages in coastal estuaries, lagoons or mangrove areas.

    In the wild, they show marked nocturnal activity, In the wild, they show marked nocturnal activity, burrowing into bottom substratum during the day and emerging burrowing into bottom substratum during the day and emerging at night to search for food as benthic feeders.at night to sea

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