Text of Stalin’s soviet union chp 3 economic policies
Stalin’s Soviet Union
‘Brutal Soviet dictator Josef Stalin was voted Russia’s third most popular historical figure in a nationwide TV poll.’ - BBC
What do these tell us about how Stalin is remembered?
To what extent did Stalin’s dictatorship
devastate The Soviet Union?
◦rule by a dictator : rule, control, or leadership by one person with total power
◦Can you think of a modern day example?
Devastate◦to destroy much or most of
(something) : to cause great damage or harm to (something) The war left the country devastated.
Lesson ObjectivesIntroduction to Stalin’s Economic
Policy: Collectivisation and Industrialisation◦Aims◦What was done?
Group work (Impact of policies)◦Source Discussion
Stalin’s Aims‘ ...we had no fatherland, nor could we have
had one. But now that we have overthrown capitalism and power is in our hands, in the hands of the people, we have a fatherland, and we must uphold its independence. Do you want our socialist fatherland to be beaten and to lose its independence? If you do not want this, you must put an end to its backwardness in the shortest possible time and develop a genuine tempo in building up the socialist economy.’
Joseph Stalin, in a speech to industrial managers, 4 February 1931.
Stalin speaking to Communist Party members in 1927
“What is the way out? The way out is to turn the small and scattered farms into large united farms ... The way out is to unite the small and dwarf farms slowly but surely, not by pressure but by example and persuasion into large farms… There is no other way out.”
CollectivisationThe merging of small individual
farms of the Soviet Union into collective farms, or kolkhozy (singular ‘kolkhoz’)
◦Kulaks were wealthy farmers who owned their own independent farmland
Why Collectivisation?It was believed that larger units
of land could be farmed more efficiently through mechanisation
Why was mechanisation wanted?i) Greater productivity = more
grainii) Fewer people needed to work on
farms – more could work in the industries
Why Collectivisation?What do you see
in this poster?
Why Collectivisation?In line with ‘Peace, Land, and
Bread for all people’Support rapid industrialisation
◦Food for workers◦Free up manpower for industrial work◦Export crops to other countries to
raise funds for industrialisation
Why Industrialisation?Stalin realised that if Russia was
to become a self-sufficient and militarily strong socialist state, the country needed to industrialise rapidly and increase production.
became a planned economy — the government had complete control. A new government department was formed to:◦set targets in each industry.
◦plan the locations of new towns and industrial cities like Magnitogorsk.
3 Five-Year Plans
Second Five-Year Plan (1933–1937)• Set new targets for heavy industries.• But it also gave more attention to industries that produced
goods such as clothing.• From 1934 onwards, priority was given to industries related to military production as the
Soviet Union anticipated another war.
• Transport and communication networks
were greatly improved.
Third Five-Year Plan(1938–1942)• Emphasis on industries related to military
production.• Disrupted when the
Soviet Union was invaded by Germany in 1941.• From then on, all resources were focused on military
production and defeating the Germans.
First Five-Year Plan (1928–1932)• Focused on heavy
industries, especially iron and steel.• After some early success, targets were increased and this Five-Year Plan
was ordered to be completed in four
years instead of five.
Industrialisation MeasuresSystem of incentives/punishment
◦Workers in factories had to work seven days a week
◦Workers could be dismissed if they missed a single day of work.
◦The more a worker produced, the more he earned.
◦Hard work was rewarded with medals and the opportunity to go on a holiday at a discount.
◦Campaign to teach the Russian workers new skills so as to tackle the problems posed by an uneducated labour force. New colleges, schools and
universities were built. Primary education was made
compulsory. Thousands of teachers, scientists
and engineers were trained
Extent of Industrialisation
Sit in your assigned groups!
QUIZ TIMEYou have 4 minutes to complete the quiz!
Group ActivityStudy the sources (10mins)
◦Think about the impact of Stalin’s economic policies Think about what’s in the source and
where it is from. Use guiding questions to help you!
◦Fill in the blank columns in the Graphic Organiser (Appendix C) where appropriate
Present your findings to the class ◦Select a representative!
Source BA historian writing about the impact of
Conditions in the countryside were so dire after collectivisation that the state had to pump additional resources into the country in order to maintain the new way of allocating grain. Yet Stalin could draw up a balance sheet that, from his standpoint, was favourable. Above all, he put an end to the recurrent crises faced by the state in relation to urban food supplies as the state’s grain collections rose from 10.8 million tons in 1928-9 to 22.8 million tons in 1931-2. After collectivisation it was the countryside, not the towns, which went hungry if the harvest was bad.
Source CA historian writing about the impact of collectivisation.
Peasant resistance, especially from the kulaks, to collectivization took many forms: slaughter of livestock, theft and destruction of collective farm property, and, perhaps most widely spread, an intentionally slow pace in carrying out directives of the kolkhoz administration. The tremendous loss of livestock through slaughter, inadequate food for the livestock, and simple neglect made it almost impossible for kolkhozes to fulfill their quotas for meat and dairy products ... In 1932, farms in parts of the Soviet Union were hit by a poor harvest, leading to famine conditions. Blaming shortages on kulak sabotage, authorities favoured urban areas and the army in distributing what supplies of food had been collected. The resulting loss of life is estimated as at least five million. To escape from starvation, large numbers of peasants abandoned collective farms for the cities.