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Law-themed Education as Superhero Raising Aspirations and Increasing Achievement in a Single Bound 1

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Law-themed Education as SuperheroRaising Aspirations and Increasing Achievement in a Single Bound

1The underlying documentation for this slideshow is varied and extensive. Some sources and citations are provided here and in the separate handouts, and all others are available in Redfield, Diversity Realized: Putting the Walk with the Talk for Diversity in the Legal Profession (publication pending Vandeplas 2009) or by contacting us for details. I invite anyone interested in diversity and pipeline (that is, the journey or pathway from kindergarten to the profession) issues to contact me with questions or ideas: [email protected]; 207-752-1721


Beth Bulgeron, Esq.Sarah Redfield, Esq.ABA LRE ConferenceChicago 2009Law-themed Curriculum as Superhero

[email protected] [email protected]


3Who are we and why do we care?Stats on the professionYou can make a difference3Law is Not A Leader.

490%90% of the bar is white, highly out of proportion with population numbers.4And law is out of touch.5Source: Miles to Go 2004 and CensusLaw is a Pathway to Leadership.6100% judges58% U.S. Senators38% U.S. Reps20% state legislators11% major CEOs

Source: various Census + Congress see notes..

6Pathways to leadership are not equally open to all.Huge issues of access to and perception of justice.Current leadership is far from proportionate diversity.

The Census reports 77% of legislators are White. EEO Residence Data Results for Total US Census 2000.Those who are diverse often traveled the path through law school:

In Senate, 1 AFAM, 2 ASPI, 3 HISP, all lawyers except one of the Asian Senators.In House now 40 AfAm (17 lawyers), 27 Hispanics (7 lawyers), 6 Asian (5 lawyers), diversity decreased from last Congress year except 1 more Hispanic.

Also, twenty-six of our forty-four presidents (60%) have been lawyers, and in the last century that number has stood at nineteen out of twenty-five or 76%, Norman Gross, ed., Americas Lawyer-Presidents (Northwestern U. Press 2004)+ current election.

For CEOs /Standard and Poors 500 top companies including Charles O. Prince III, Citigroup; David B. Dillon, Kroger; Franklin D. Raines, Fannie Mae. Spencer Stuart, 2004 CEO Study: A Statistical Snapshot of Leading CEOs, http://www.spencerstuart.com/research/articles/876/. And CEOS are already predominantly white, just about same proportion as lawyers.

Sources: Ethnicity Data Collected from http://www.ethnicmajority.com/congress.htm Data Collected From: http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp

Other professions are more diverse.7Source: Adapted from ABA Miles to Go 2004 + 2000 Census7Labor force = percentage of total civilian labor force according to 2000 Census; numbers for minorities are sums of AfAm, Hisp, As, AiAn, NHPI.Attorney numbers very close to census numbers for CEOS; most others near this are scientists, engineers. The civil engineers are > lawyers, but we are still above psychologists and vets, 1/10 of a percent > CEOS and just below funeral directors.

Chart from numbers in Miles to Go and Census 2000; Source: US Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation. For further comparisons, Census 2000 Special EEO Tabulation, Employment by Census Occupation Codes EEO Residence Data Results for Total US file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Sarah%20Redfield/Desktop/broker.htm.

The pipeline is narrowed and broken.8Source: Based on prior LSA C slide + NCES data see notes.8Narrowing, and not likely to change; African American numbers in real numbers and percent decreasing. Others flat.Example ENROLL# schoolsAfAm Total%200720081989,483141,7196.7%199519961789,779129,3977.6%

Blacks made up 12.8% of US population in 2007 but only 7% of Fall 2007 law school admits. Law schools would have to increase black admission by 83% just to reach proportional representation (i.e., to go from 7% of law school admissions to 12.8%).

The proportion of minorities in the legal profession is not likely to attain parity with that in the general population in the foreseeable future. ABA Office of Diversity Initiatives, http://www.abanet.org/leadership/diversity.html..w Schools Cannot Admit Students Who Have Long Since Leaked from the Pipeline; Profession Cannot Hire Those Who Have Not Been to Law School

Sources: Data from LSAC populations slide Handwerk, data modified to 100% (v. 1.07), also, modified via addition of high school population data columns.Source for HS data: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, NCES, Digest of Education Statistics 2007Table 40. Percentage distribution of enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by race/ethnicity and state or jurisdiction: Fall 1995 and fall 2005, http://nces.ed.govf/programs/digest/d07/tables/dt07_040.aspTable 103. Public high school graduates and dropouts, by race/ethnicity and state or jurisdiction: 2003-04 and 2004-05, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d07/tables/dt07_103.asp

You cant go to law school if you cant read.9AGE91317White226266293Black200244264Hisp.205242264Source: NCES Digest Reading 2004

Achievement gaps are longstanding and enduring. This slide and the next illustrate the issue in reading, a critical skill for life and for the practice of law. As the notes indicate, other subjects are similar.For those students who remain in school, by seventh grade, black and Latino students, on average, read at the level of white third graders; on average, black and Latino 17-year-olds at the same level as white 13-year-olds.Source: NAEP 12th Grade Reading 200510Below basic, reading #s are illustrative & troubling.NAEP, National Assessment of Educational Progress. Later slides illustrate the impact of limited reading abilities on future success.As with reading, the writing test numbers remaining below basic confirm persistent difficulties: for blacks, 31%; AIAN 30%; Hispanic, 29%; White and ASPI 14%. Writing scores for 2007 show that the blackwhite and Hispanicwhite achievement gaps remain. For black students there was a 23 point gap in scores (was 24 in 2002) and for Hispanic students, a 20-point gap (was 18 in 2002). Similarly, in the NAEP Grade 12 civics results, 55% of Hispanics, 58% of AIAN, and 59% of blacks perform below basic, compared to 27% of white students and 31% of Asians. For students eligible for free and reduced price lunch, 51% are at or above basic, and 8% are at or above proficient.In history, too, different percentages of minority students perform below basic on NAEP: whites, 44%; ASPI, 46%; AIAN, 68%; Hispanics, 73%; and blacks, 80%.See, e.g. NCES, Digest of Education Statistics 2007, Table 112. Average reading scale score, by age and selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1971 through 2004 ; The Nations Report Card, Writing 2007, 39; NCES, Digest of Education Statistics 2007, Table 122. Average civics scale score and percentage of students attaining civics achievement levels, by grade level and selected student characteristics: 1998 and 2006; NCES, Digest of Education Statistics 2008, Table 126. Percentage of students attaining U.S. history achievement levels, by grade level and selected student characteristics: 2001 and 2006.

The test results are predictive and damning.11Source: Based on prior LSAC prepared slideLSAT APPLYADMITAsPI+2+2White+2+1average153156avg matriculate157Hispanic-5-3Chicano -4-2AIAN-3-2AfAm-9-6PR-13-12Every point counts. These numbers are prohibitive for admissions. These numbers need to change, or law school rankings need to change. . . .

Source: Law School Admission Council. Prepared by Phil Handwerk, Institutional Researcher ([email protected]), March 2008


What the math would look like. . .TOO FEW = +100,000 +230,000 Without repair of the pipeline, PARITY is IMPOSSIBLE


To approach parity, at least 100,000 additional black attorneys and over 230,000 additional Hispanic attorneys would need to join the ranks of the profession to reach something approaching parity with the general population. To achieve significant change in diverse populations, the law academy would need to increase its admissions for blacks and Hispanics well beyond what the current applicant pool, in the current milieu, can support. For blacks, the anticipated pool would prove insufficient; for Hispanics, about 70% of the available Hispanic students would need to be admitted to law school to achieve parity in the profession, for American Indian/Alaskan Natives, about 90%. In an overall lawyer population estimated at about 1.1 million, these numbers would involve increasing current black admission rates from 3,980 to approximately 5,300 and Hispanic admission rates from 4,400 to approximately 12,000 per year, an increase of about 33% and 173% respectively. The numbers would need to be even greater if there is not a relative decrease in the current majority groups. Todays first graders are the law school graduating class for 2028, the year Justice OConnor suggests as the closing of the window on affirmative action based on a compelling diversity interest. There are almost four million first graders. Of these, 57% are white, 17% black, 20% Hispanic, 5% ASPI, and 1% AIAN, providing a black first grade population around 650,000 and an Hispanic population around 800,000. Projecting current degree-granting rates, about one million of these first graders overall can be anticipated to earn Bachelors degrees (BA) in 2024-25, including 9.6% of black students and 7.2% of Hispanic students. In turn, of these BAs, again, projecting current applicant data, about 20% of black students and 25% of Hispanic students can be anticipated to have earned BAs with GPAs sufficient for admission to law school under existing norms. (GPAs included here are 3.25 and above, making the percentage used for these calculations slightly more inclusive.) Fewer still will have LSAT scores in the range likely to be admitted.Notes on numbers continued on next slide.

Law will remain out of touch and out of sync

13talking . . . talking not walkingtalking . .talking .

[Numbers continued }While there is a high interest in law school, other professions will also be competing for qualified applicants. Assuming, though, that all are possible participants in the applicant pool for law school and assuming that the factors outlined here (and their causes) do not change significantly, the qualified pool would have to be much larger than projection of current numbers would suggest. See further citations in Redfield, Diversity, particularly Dalessandro, LSAC Research; current admissions, Fall 08 Data, Law School Admissions Council (LSAC), Data, Volume Summary Admitted Applicants by Ethnic & Gender Group; Data, Volume Summary Matriculants by Ethnic & Gender Group. By any count, such an increase (or even half or a quarter of such an increase) cannot be gained by continuing to nibble at the edges of the pool or the larger problem.[These numbers are derived by applying the population percentage estimated for 2030 to the overall number of lawyers for 2030 (holding constant the percentage of lawyers of the entire population based on 2000 percentage of .3%). Admittedly, it is likely that the next census will show an increase in this percentage, but for purposes of a rough comparative estimate, the existing data is used. The general calculations here do not take special account of retirement or mortality rates, nor of the additional lawyers added to the professions ranks between the 2000 census and today. It could be anticipated that these numbers will at least partially cancel each other out, but in any case, the rough trends remain obvious. ]WITHOUT Pipeline FOCUS & CHANGE in approach to a systemic, sustained effort, the pipeline will remain as is and diversity will remain stalled.To fix it, stop talking, start walking.

there are too few URMS available in the qualified Pool interested in law school.There really is little surprise that at the law school gates14Even at the roughest count, in the best of circumstances, numbers will not be there from now to 2028.The numbers in this group of slides are from various sources (detailed in Redfield, Diversity Realized) and necessitate a variety of assumptions. Even if the estimates are half wrong, the task repairing the pipeline remains daunting if not overwhelming. This is what the ABA means when it says diversity is unforeseeable.

The legal community has tried. . . .

15The Bar has a history of working on diversity issues, Key point was commission in 1984 reporting in 1986 that law is a segregated profession. Not much progress, Miles to Go reports continue to remain essentially the same.Bar has power as convernors, leaders, also is the accreditor of law schools.

ABA GOAL III:ELIMINATE BIAS AND ENHANCE DIVERSITY.Objectives:Promote full and equal participation in the association, our profession, and the justice system by all persons.Eliminate bias in the legal profession and the justice system.

Source: ABA Mission and Goals, August 2008, http://www.abanet.org/about/goals.html. See also ABA, Goal IX, to promote the full and equal participation in the legal profession by minorities, women and persons with disabilities. (former diversity goal), http://www.abanet.org/lsd/diversity/plan.pdf.

And recognized it can partner for change.

Not just at its own gates, but along the Pipeline P20, preschool to the profession1617We are, however, an action-oriented profession of problem-solvers and deal-makers. Let us make this project the most important case on our calendar, the biggest deal pending. The clock is ticking, and we have no time to waste. We can and must join together to make diversity in our profession a reality, rather than an unfulfilled promise .

Source: ABA Report, see notes. ABA Presidential Advisory Council on Diversity in the Profession, The Critical Need to Further Diversify the Legal Academy & the Legal Profession 12 (Oct. 2005), http://www.abanet.org/op/pipelineconf/acdreport.pdf

Beyond the moralistic responsibility, it also makes good business sense for the legal profession to invest time and resources in the diversity pipeline. Law firms, corporate legal departments, government, and the judiciary cannot recruit attorneys of color who do not exist. Diversity efforts will encounter inherent obstacles as long as there remain too few people of color who decide to enter the profession in the first place. Forward-thinking legal employers have already accepted this reality, and label their diversity pipeline donations as recruitment expenses.

Like Justice for Chocolate

18Like Justice for Chocolate


Video entry for the State Bar of Texas "Texans on Justice" YouTube contestwww.youtube.com/watch?v=0sWA2FytJoA

To change mind the new 3Rs20Source: Gates FoundationThis slide illustrates what we should be talking and walking. Research shows that potential for success in improving diversity lies in a focus on what the Gates Foundation has called the new 3Rsrigor, relevance, and relationships. Not now accessible to all students, in significant part, the missing 3Rs underlie the achievement gap and the narrowing of the educational pipeline well before the law school gates. At the same time, these 3Rs are areas where the law community has proven experience and expertise, areas where the law community is particularly well suited for work that can significantly repair and widen the educational pipeline, thus expanding the number of qualified diverse students seeking admission to law school.The Gates Foundation, The 3Rs solution:Relationships: all students need adult mentors who know them, look out for them, and push them to achieve.The legal community has a great capacityand indeed has already shown this in some of its programsto provide intellectual capital and human resources to establish and support relationships with students as mentors, teachers, internship supervisors, and the like.Relevance: courses and projects must spark student interest and relate clearly to their lives in todays rapidly changing world.One look at the newspaper, the Supreme Courts docket, or todays TV listings shows that the law offers engaging relevant subject matter.Rigor: all students need the chance to succeed at challenging classes, such as algebra, writing, and chemistry.The law's curricula and established teaching methodologyits "signature pedagogy"by definition promotes rigor and sustains high expectations.4th R? Results

Components of a Law Themed Program

21Redfield et al. See notes.The law community has contributions to make for each aspect of the pipeline. As collaborator.

Source: Sarah E. Redfield, Article, A Chance in HellA Concept Paper on the Need for Supporting the Educational Pipeline to Achieve Diversity in the Profession (publication forthcoming).

Law curriculum is powerful.EngagingRelevant Real world experience

Law is Engaging.

23Media/ legal issues in the news, in the community, in schools

Career pathways that enable students to visualize themselves as a ___ and shows them a clear pathway to achieve that goal.

Law Curriculum is multilayered + varied.At its best, it isSequencedSustainedIntegratedAt its best, it offerscurricular & co-curricular opportunitiesoutside partnerships & resources

24Various models and levels of engagement

Law curriculum can include law themed course sequence as well as co-curricular activities and support.

Picture of superhero?

Law has a signature pedagogy.SocraticProject basedSkills based InteractiveMultilayered + varied

Source: Newsweek, Aug. 1, 200825the way we teach and learn law in law school is good and its good for kids in high school

On Ina: EXCEL HIGH SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECT Partnerships often form around particular issues as well as along institutional lines. The work of high school students in a law-themed academy in Oakland, California is illustrative. Here the partners were the Rose Foundation for Communities and the Environment, Global Community Monitor, and the Law Academy. In a project reminiscent of Project Citizen, students challenged the toxic pollution generated by a neighborhood recycler and brought about change. Through tours of the schools neighborhood, students identified a site that appeared to generate potentially hazardous chemicals. Armed with evidence collected from air samples and street debris, they approached the media and enlisted a local officials support. Meetings were held with responsible agencies and neighbors to further investigate the problem. From these efforts, a neighborhood group was formed and the group continues to push for positive change. Ina Bendich, director of the law academy at Excel High School, saw the learning this way: Kids of color living in poverty feel less connected to the system and don't tend to engage as readily with civics My ultimate goal is to show kids that government really is for everyone and that their concerns are as important as any other citizen, but that they must be the squeaky wheel if their condition has any hope of changing.

This is Ina Bendichs picture from Newsweek.

Law curriculum is project-based.

26Here project is moot court.

26Law curriculum is interactive + skills based.

27Students at a law-themed school working together to develop strategy and oral argument with help of local DC lawyer.

Partnerships are Important.-MentoringInternshipsGuest speakersShared teachingTours /police ride-alongsCo-curricular support

Getting lawyers in the classroom usually just requires a call and resolving schedule. Resources via bar (see handout, California bar contacts).Lots of possible roles, human, intellectual and financial capital. $. A law-based example of an impactful counseling program is the Bar Association of San Franciscos (BASF) School-To-College (STC) program at Balboa High School. Students self-select into the program, which is open to the entire student body. Balboa High School is about 11% African American and 22% Hispanic, and almost 60% free and reduced lunch. BASF supports a full time coordinator four days every week to counsel grades 912, particularly around high school graduation requirements. The coordinator provides additional educational advice including an overview of the different types of colleges, their admission requirements, and financial aid options. Balboa students can also take advantage of a 6-week SAT prep course at a dramatically reduced rate as well as the opportunity to tour college campuses in the Bay Area, New York, Boston and Southern California. For the BASF STC group, in 2007, SAT scores improved by 213 points. In that same year, 99% went on to college, including 84% percent who went on to four-year schools as compared to just 25% among students unaffiliated with the program.

28Cleveland Municipal School District293RSRights Responsibilities RealitiesSOURCE: http://www.clevelandbar.org/3Rs_Site/index.html

Human Resources.The 3Rs program in Cleveland illustrates the kind of organizational expertise and the change that New York City's New Century High Schools Initiative describes. The Cleveland 3Rs programRights Responsibilities Realitiesis one of the law-based programs that deserves particular attention because of the scope of its work and the commitment to community partnership that has made it possible. The Cleveland Metropolitan Bar Association has come together with the Cleveland legal community, the Cleveland Marshall School of Law at Cleveland State University and the Cleveland Metropolitan School District to offer a program designed to foster a better understanding of the Constitution and promote a positive attitude about our legal systemhelp improve passage rates on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT)provide practical career counselingencourage minorities in the region to seek careers in the legal profession The 3Rs provides curriculum lessons with an accompanying Instructors Guide to support a constitutional law-based series of classes that include freedom of expression, Fourth Amendment search and seizure protections, Due Process, and Equal Protection. Every facet of the legal community is involved in this program, including over five hundred Cleveland lawyers, judges and law students are participating in teams of four or five to offer monthly classes to tenth-graders in twenty-one of Clevelands high schools and Shaw High School in East Cleveland. In addition to teaching these classes, counseling, tutoring, and mentoring relationships have developed and support aspirations and access to higher education. In the summer of 2008, this program was augmented by a site for a summer program following the Legal Outreach model.Envisioned as a program that would assist and encourage students at a critical point in their academic life, the 3Rs program reached more than 4,000 tenth graders in AY 2007-08 from districts that serve primarily minority students from economically disadvantaged families. The Cleveland Metropolitan Bar Association focused attention on tenth graders who are required to take the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT), passage of which is essential to receiving a high school diploma. When The 3Rs program was first initiated, the passage rate on the social studies portion of the OGT for students in the Cleveland Metropolitan School District and East Cleveland City Schools was significantly lower than the state average (among the two worst performing districts in the state), and the graduation rate in the districts was below 53%. Student performances on the OGT have been improving each year since the programs inception. Midway through the programs first year, Social Studies scores on the OGT rose nearly 5%. In AY 2007-08, the social studies passage rate for tenth graders taking the OGT increased again in the Cleveland schools by 7.4%, the highest increase of all subjects in 2008. Shaw High School has also reported large gains in social studies passage rates for the 10th graders in classes served by 3Rs volunteers during AY 2007-08 school year.29Law fosters high expectations.

Guidance, counseling, mentoringRole modelsRigorous curriculum Career pathways One caring adult

Lawyers have graduated from high school, gone to college and on to professional school. They know the pathway and model a work ethic. Work that lawyers do involves negotiation, competition, oral advocacy, where is visible and obvious that the lawyer is/is not prepared. Students who work in law settings see first hand a work ethic based on years of education.

Research shows that The Law community increases aspirations & persistence.

31Judge Roger Gregory, only Black Judge on the Fourth Cir. @ Sacramento High School.

3232Law teaches the skills employers demand.33Source: Conference Board, Are They Really Ready to Work?Employers New Top 10 Critical Thinking/Problem SolvingInfo Technology Application*Teamwork/Collaboration*Creativity/Innovation*Diversity*LeadershipOral Communications*Professionalism/Work Ethic*Ethics/Social ResponsibilityWritten Communications

in the new world of workIn the context of polarization of the labor market & computerization and outsourcing factors desirable US jobs are those w/expert and critical thinking Problem solvingand complex communicationTo the jobs people want not outsourced, not eliminatedKNOWLEDGE WORKERSIT training in hsEncouraging creativityEncouraging entrepreneurial thinkingLittle future for those who cannot become knowledge workers.Levy & Murnane (economists) (2004) The New Division of Labor: How Computers Are Creating the Next Job Market. Russell Sage Foundation. Princeton U Press at 31.Illustration from history re: what does critical thinking mean: we discussed a study of experts in the field of history and learned that they regard the available evidence as more than lists of facts (Wineburg, 1991). The study contrasted a group of gifted high school seniors with a group of working historians. Both groups were given a test of facts about the American Revolution taken from the chapter review section of a popular United States history textbook. The historians who had backgrounds in American history knew most of the items, while historians whose specialties lay elsewhere knew only a third of the test facts. Several students scored higher than some historians on the factual pretest. In addition to the test of facts, however, the historians and students were presented with a set of historical documents and asked to sort out competing claims and to formulate reasoned interpretations. The historians excelled at this task. Most students, on the other hand, were stymied. Despite the volume of historical information the students possessed, they had little sense of how to use it productively for forming interpretations of events or for reaching conclusions.Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning, John D.Bransford, Ann L.Brown, and Rodney R.Cocking, ed., How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition (2000), p. 158 http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9853&page=158.

Soft skills = interpersonal, problem-solving; Source: Are They Really Ready 2000-2010Workers 35-44 decrease 10%Workers 16-24 increase 15%by 201580% US jobs = greater than high school graduationNYT By MARCI ALBOHER Published: April 7, 2008Soft Skills The hard skills are the technical expertise you need to get the job done. The soft skills are really everything else competencies that go from self-awareness to ones attitude to managing ones career to handling critics, not taking things personally, taking risks, getting along with people and many, many more. Photo credit: www.thoughttheater.com/TopTen.jpg


Law theme teaches the skills in demand.PoliceProbation OfficersJudgesParalegalsLawyersCourt officersLaw enforcementInvestigators

34Survey says.Why law is an especially good vehicle to teach 21st century skills or (lawyer skills).in the new world of workIn the context of polarization of the labor market & computerization and outsourcing factors desirable US jobs are those w/expert and critical thinking Problem solvingand complex communication

Can you add some notes to this? Yes.

WRITING!Followed by communication skills35(based on interviews and surveys of people in the industry throughout the U.S)

Law curriculum is relevant and real world. Professionals emphasized :WritingEffective communication skillsAnalytical readingArguing persuasivelyHaving an understanding of Constitutional rightsBeing able to work with a variety of people across socio-economic and cultural linesAbility to synthesize materialStrong reading skills

What makes legal curriculum engaging to kids?

Critical thinking IS law-based ed.CRITICAL THINKINGdue processcitizenship, reading, writing, advocacy

For example, name that rule!Rules for Monica/Lena Professor Charles CallerosSandra Day O'Connor College of Law at Arizona State University http://www.law.asu.edu/files/faculty/RulesforLina/chapter1.html http://www.law.asu.edu/files/faculty/RulesforLina/chapter2.html http://www.law.asu.edu/files/faculty/RulesforLina/chapter3.html 37Do a lesson.37Putting it all together

38Putting it all together- what a course sequence could look like- co-curricular activities and programs such as peer court, mock trial, moot court, Youth Court, mentoring, guest speakers, law days at law firms, internships, etc.38SummaryTHERE IS SOMETHING ABOUT LAW

EngagingRelevantRigorousRelationship basedRecord of SuccessCOLLABORATION WORKSLAW COMMUNITY

Rich in resources + relationshipsNaturals for pedagogy +PBLTrained and Model Critical Thinking39Legal courses should be sequenced.The legal theme should be integrated across the curriculum.Law themed programs should capitalize on partnerships with the legal community.Law-themed programs should cultivate high expectations and aspirations.Law-themed programs should include activities that are engaging, relevant to real-life, and empowering.

key recommendations Three key recommendations related to law themed curriculum are as follows:1.) Legal Courses Should Be Sequenced: A sequential curriculum in which courses build upon one another as a student progresses is as powerful and engaging for students in a law-themed program as in any other. In a law-themed curriculum, younger students are often most interested in the study of criminal law, and so this subject should serve as a hook early in the students high school career. An introduction to careers in law, as well as a survey of the foundations of law in world history also should appear early in the curriculum. Later, a course in U.S. constitutional law and in any of a number of more specific areas of the law can allow for the continued development of the thinking like a lawyer skills that are a valuable product of a law-themed curriculum. A practicum or internship experience in field can provide a capstone 12th grade experience. 2.) The Legal Theme Should Be Integrated Across the Curriculum: Apart from explicitly legal courses, the most effective law-themed program integrates legal themes into academic courses across the curriculum. English classes include the study of oratory, debate, legal research and writing, and perhaps the study of literature with legal themes. Science classes provide the opportunity to infuse the study of forensics and evidence. Courses in mathematics might focus on proof theory and the similarity between solving mathematical proofs and the construction of effective legal arguments. Social studies and history courses lend themselves particularly effectively to the integration of a law-themed focus. Even foreign language and fine arts courses can be supplemented by a law-themed focus.3.) Law-Themed Programs Should Cultivate High Expectations: Rigorous courses that offer intellectual complexity and high standards, along with the high expectations that come along with such courses, are fundamental to the law-themed curriculum. As in college, at law school, and throughout life, critical thinking is a crucial skill. A sequence of legal courses and the integration of legal themes across the curriculum can make a high school academic program more relevant to students, but only rigorous coursework and a culture of high expectations will result in the type of achievement that will prepare students for college and career.

40QUESTIONS/ TOMORROWIf you were going to start (expand) a law-related or themed program, what do you have questions about?What are you worried about?What will you need?