1. Teaching with Visual SymbolsReporter: Mariz Taylaran Ombajin
2. Graphs Graphs present quantitative data for easier analysis and interpretation. It shows comparative relationship of data involved in size, trends and growth. Graphs are best used in developing and in summarizing a unit. 3. Kinds of graphs Line graph is the most accurate of all graphs used in plotting trends of relationships between two series of data. It is used when there is a considerable number of data to be plotted and if these data are continuous. 4. Bar graphs simplest of all graphs to read. They are represented either by vertical or horizontal bars. The lengths of the bars represent an amount or percentage data. It is best when number of values to be compared is small. 5. Circle or pie graph the sections of which are used to represent component parts of a whole. They always present total amounts, their parts or segments are calculated in percentage or fractional parts of a whole. 6. Pictorial Statistics or pictograph it makes use of related pictures in showing quantitative data. Pictures give realism and interest so it is widely used specially in the elementary grades. 7. Graphic organizers- (some of which are also called concept maps, entity relationship charts, and mind maps) are a pictorial way of constructing knowledge and organizing information. 8. They help the student convert and compress a lot of seemingly disjointed information into a structured, simple-toread, graphic display. The resulting visual display conveys complex information in a simple-to-understand manner. 9. Maps Maps are usually shown on flat surface and are used to represent the surface of the earth or some parts of it, showing the relative size and position according to scale or projection and position represented. 10. Maps according to content Physical map also called relief maps, they are the best because of their three dimensional representation; which includes geographical outline of land and water. 11. Commercial or economic maps- also known as product or industrial map since they show land area in relation to the economy. 12. Political map shows national boundaries down to the smallest division. 13. Map language Scale- shows how much the actual earths surface is represented by a given measurement on a map. 14. Symbols- usually a map has a legend that explains what each symbols example highways, railroads, mountains, lakes and plains. 15. Color- the different colors of the map are part of the map language. 16. Geographical grids- this is the entire system of the grid lines. These grid lines are called meridians and parallels. A meridian is a north to south pole line. Parallels are lines drawn around the globe with all points along each line with equal distance from the pole. 17. Longitude is a distance in degrees of anplace east or west of the prime meridian. Latitude is the distance in degrees of any place north and south of the equator. 18. Understanding Maps, Graps and Charts, What should you do to be successful in reading maps, charts and graphs? The following steps can help: 19. Read the information shown along the side and the bottom of graphs and charts and tables, if any. This will help understand what quantities and qualities are being presented or what comparisons are being made. On maps, notice how the different parts of the map are related to each other. Determine your purpose for reading the map, chart, table or graph.