The Baroque

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  1. 1. The Baroque The Baroque Era01/08/13 1
  2. 2. The Baroque Era: OverviewTime Period (1600-1750) The period between the Renaissance and the Classical Era Baroque (irregular pearl)--extravagant and bizarre qualities of the music--harmonies, textures, and forms more free and unpredictable than those of either the Renaissance or Classical Eras Music had energy and motion, ornamentation and extremes.Expression of feelings (affect) became important; one feeling per movement = doctrine of affectionsRepresented passions through music Architecture--very ornateListen to This3-2By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  3. 3. The Baroque Era: Overview National pride was illustrated in cultural, political, and economic terms. Finest music = highest power Rulers/aristocracy proved their value by elaboratefestivals, music, art, architecture. King George I of England Louis XIV of France Churches also illustrated their importance with elaborate music and architecture. Many of the compositions of this period were written forthe churches--both Catholic and Protestant. Height of church music-80% is religious Music conveyed spiritual teachings, as did sacredarchitecture.Listen to This 3-3By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  4. 4. Baroque Music: GeneralWhereas in the Renaissance, most church music was performed without accompaniment (i.e., a cappella), in the Baroque, many instruments were used to accompany liturgical music.Gabrieli pioneered the use of different instruments in various parts of the church--called antiphonal styleListen to This 3-4By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  5. 5. Historical Events that Influenced Baroque PeriodGutenbergs movable type (1453) led to printed music (1501) Ottaviano Petrucci Printed music allowed musical compositions to be performed by many different individuals and ensembles in a variety of places. Printed music allows us to know much more about music after this time.Listen to This 3-5By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  6. 6. Characteristics of Baroque Style MusicGeneral: heavy, grand, expansivePerformance Media: chamber orchestra, chorus plus chamber orchestra, chamber ensembles (vocal and instrumental), organ, harpsichordRhythm: steady beats, running bass, regular meters of 2, 3, 4, and 6 beats, tempo of piece stays same throughout except for slowing near endListen to This3-6By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  7. 7. Characteristics of Baroque Style MusicMelody: using major and minor scales, ornamentation, sequences, and imitation, first real use of chromaticism, continuous, fortspinnung, repetition elaborate and ornamental, rapidious notesHarmony: strong harmonic movement; sequences of harmony and recurring cadences; major and minor harmonies usedDynamic Expression: contrasting (sudden drops and increases: called terraced dynamics); echo imitation used; no gradual increases or decreases in loudness (crescendo or diminuendo), lack of detail in scores- composers under pressure to produce a lot of music in a short amount of timeListen to This 3-7By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  8. 8. Characteristics of Baroque Style Music:Overview Texture: mainly polyphonic; thick texture with 1 or moremelodies in high parts and contrapuntal melodies in lowerparts; continuous bass line; occasional contrastinghomophonic sections to add interest Unity of mood: One piece captures one mood, onlyexception is vocal music, (changes of text change themood of the music) Primary Forms: concerto, concerto grosso, suite,oratorio, cantata, opera; trio sonata and other sonatas forinstruments; keyboard prelude, fugue, and toccataListen to This 3-8By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  9. 9. Louis XIVs Palace atVersaillesListen to This 3-9By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  10. 10. The Baroque Era: Overview Operas were first performed in private theaters in the courts of the nobility and royalty. Public opera houses started in Venice, Italy, in 1637; by 1700 the public craved opera, and it was big business. Oratorios--operas without costumes and staging; created for performance in church or in an opera house during LENT--a penitential season. This was the beginning of the importance of virtuoso performers-- singers and instrumentalists of extremely high technical and musical skill. Castrati--men who were castrated as boys so that their voiceswould not change; they sounded like women with voices that hada great deal of power.Listen to This 3-10By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  11. 11. Example of Baroque Era Painting--A Musical Interlude By the Dutch painter Jan Verkolje (~1674) Depicts a passionate musician reaching for his female companion, who is holding a viol.Listen to This3-11By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  12. 12. InstrumentsInstruments of all types continue to improveAmati-Guarneri Stradivarius-makes ultimate violinListen to This3-12By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  13. 13. New Musical IdeasStile antico Stile modernoFirst Second practice Practice(Renaissance Text dominates music Ideal) Involves wider rangeMusic dominates textof emotion expressed and greater intensityStyle differ for specificoccasions: Church, chamber, theaterListen to This3-13By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  14. 14. The Doctrine of AffectionsDevised by the philosophies of several theoristsA musical means to express generic states of the soulGrief, rage, excitement, grandeur, etc.Vocabulary of motives devised which relate to rhetorical speechTo excite the affectionsListen to This 3-14By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  15. 15. Characteristics of the Baroque Period Main instrument-Harpsichord Tuning-based on thePythagorean comma Equal Temperament-onkeyboard instruments System of intervals tuned off-key to keep distance betweenhalf-steps equal, still usedtodayListen to This 3-15By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  16. 16. The Basso Continuo Chords and the Basso ContinuoChords became more important, by-products of the motion of melodic linesMany composed melody to fit particular chord progressionGave more prominence to bass line-foundation of harmonyResult-most characteristic feature-basso continuoPlayed usually by two instruments-harpsichord or organ and low instrument like cello or bassoonFigured bass-bass part written with numbers indicated chord structure, musical shorthand, saved time & paperPerformers needed improvisational skillsContinuo provided continual flow of notesListen to This 3-16By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  17. 17. The Circle of FifthsListen to This3-17By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  18. 18. Characteristics of the Baroque Period Words & Music Word painting stillused Emphasizing wordsby writing rapid notesfor one syllable, alsoto display singersvirtuosity Individual words andphrases repeatedListen to This 3-18By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  19. 19. Chapter 9: Claudio Monteverdi--Orpheus (Act II)Opera--a drama sung from beginning to end Based on a mythological story (in this era) Costumes, staging, lighting--all the dramatic aspects of theater combined with music One character = one voiceListen to This 3-19By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  20. 20. Baroque Opera-Forerunners Dramatic madrigals &Medieval liturgical madrigal cycles-content of dramas, Mystery & epic & pastoral poems miracle plays with two types of textRenaissance Intermedi : setting: narrative for plot of pastoral or mythological development(recitative), character, performedreflective for emotional between acts of plays,outpouring(aria) consist of solo & The Pastoral-poems ensemble madrigals about shepherds and other rural subjects; amorous, lightListen to This 3-20By Mark Evan BondsPRENTICE HALL2009 Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  21. 21. The Florentine Camarata A group of composers who met to share musicalideas and techniques Wrote treatises on composing Jacopo Peri-LEuridice, first opera(1600) Written for wedding of King Henri IV & Marie deMedici First to use stile recitative(solo over simple chords or continuo) for clarity of textListen to This3-21By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  22. 22. Baroque Opera: GeneralInformationOne of most important musical innovations of this periodMonteverdis Orfeo made opera more popular with public, outside the courts.First opera house, in Venice, opened in 1637.Listen to This3-22By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  23. 23. Baroque Opera:CharacteristicsLibretto--the story or play Usually based on Greek dramas. Started in Italy but moved to England and France. Italian remained the popular language for opera during this period. Currently, Baroque operas have been translated to many languages.Listen to This3-23By Mark Evan Bonds PRENTICE HALL 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  24. 24. Cha