Session 6: Wandering
Session 11: From Shepherd to KingRolling Hills Community Church
By 2015, revenues of diet and weight reducing centers in the United States are projected to reach approximately 1.48 billion U.S. dollars.
The revenue of the U.S. cosmetic industry is estimated to amount to about 62.46 billion U.S. dollars in 2016.
The Lord does not look at theoutward appearancebut at the heart.
But the Lord said to Samuel, Do not look at his appearance or at the height of his stature, because I have rejected him; for God sees not as man sees, for man looks at the outward appearance, but the Lord looks at the heart.1 Samuel 16:78
High Level Overview The Lords Anointed 1 Samuel 16 David and Goliath 1 Samuel 17 David and Jonathan 1 Samuel 18 David and Saul 1 Samuel 18, 24; Psalm 59
High Level Overview A Tragic End 1 Samuel 31; 2 Samuel 22 Unashamed 2 Samuel 6 A House for the Lord 1 Chronicles 17
1025 BC: David is anointed by Samuel (1Sam 16) at age 10-13 - which Saul undoubtedly hears about, later choosing to keep David nearby for observation and ready dispatch.
We say, Dont judge a book by its cover, but how often do we follow our own advice? In reality, humans have an innate reflex for making assumptions at first glance. Samuel did it as he viewed Jesses sons. He judged based on outward appearance. But the Lord was looking at an individuals heart that day and saw someone who would care more about doing the Lords will than pleasing others or himself. One thousand years later, a descendant of David, Jesus of Nazareth, would also be anointed, this time by the Holy Spirit in the Jordan River. He, too, was someone you might pass over at first glance, but his heart was perfectly aligned with the will of his Father in heaven. He, like his ancestor David, was also a man after Gods own heart.11
David and Goliath
1020 BC: David defeats Goliath probably at 15-17 years of age (1Sam 17)
Goliath was an unbelievably imposing figure, standing over nine feet tall. The Bible makes reference to other examples of giants (e.g., the Nephilim [Gen. 6:4; Num. 13:33], Anakim, and Rephaim), but Goliath is displayed in full 3-D in this passage. He not only stands tall but is wearing the best armor. Scripture describes it in detail. Based on archaeological studies, for his day Goliath had the best of the best military hardware. Not only that, but Goliath knew how to use his equipment, having been raised in the company of warriors from his youth. In every way, he was poised to crush David like a gnat. One-on-one combat was celebrated in ancient literature as a way to see whose god was strongest. Examples can be found in Greek, Egyptian, and Hittite literature. Clearly, David knew that size and skill were not the deal breakers. The real question was who had the Lord on his side.12
Faceoff in the Elah Valley: David v. Goliath. David cut his teeth on international politics in his showdown with Goliath, a battle fit for the ages. The Philistines of Gath pushed into the Elah Valley, their valley they would say, just as Samson's forays into the Sorek had been his claim to his. The Philistine eyes were on Saul's capital, Gibeah, and tried this end- around from the south only after several more direct assaults farther north had failed. Bethlehem, a small village on the way, should have posed only minimal resistancebut David had something else to say about the matter13
Seen from the top of Azekah, the upper, Judean end of the Elah Valley offers a wide highway to the higher hill country of Judah beyond. Natural routes climb the hills to Bethlehem (left) and Hebron (right), just past the horizon line. With Goliath's Philistines seizing this eastern end of the Elah, Saul's forces likely came down only to the edge of the hill country, preferring to remain in familiar territory rather than risk entering the Philistine- held Shephelah. The battle between David and Goliath must have taken place at a narrow spot (Hebrew, gai) of the valley somewhere along this seam14
1020 BC: Jonathan, who is much older than David, becomes one in spirit with him (1Sam 18:1).
Now it came about when he had finished speaking to Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit to the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as himself. Saul took him that day and did not let him return to his fathers house. Then Jonathan made a covenant with David because he loved him as himself. Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was on him and gave it to David, with his armor, including his sword and his bow and his belt. 1 Samuel 18:1-5
David and Jonathans friendship was powerful and unique. The exchange of weapons described in this passage certainly indicated a deep commitment to each other. But Jonathans act of giving his robe to David may have represented more than a sign of close friendship. In other ancient texts, we learn that laying down ones robe could have legal implications. For instance, a son expelled from his fathers household would lay his robe on a stool near the door. This symbolized his relinquishing any claim to the family inheritance. Another ancient text describes a prince who chooses to leave his throne. He lays his mantle on the throne, indicating the legal relinquishment of the throne.15
1006 BC: David flees to Nob and is helped by Ahimelech the priest (1Sam 21). He gives David the consecrated bread, and the sword of Goliath. Doeg the Edomite is present. Ps 56.
David and Saul
1005 BC: Saul pursues David at en-Gedi. Ps 54. David cuts of a corner of his robe in the cave near the Crags of the Wild goats. When Saul leaves the cave, David pleads his cause and his intent not to harm Saul (1Sam 24). He returns to his stronghold (Masada?). Ps 57. This is just before Samuel dies (1Sam 25:1).
Sauls madness and Davids innocence lie at the narrative core of the Saul-David conflict. In Saul we see a man desperately trying to preserve what he knows is already lost. In David we see a hero all the more admirable for his unwillingness to grab power under the wrong circumstances (i.e., after killing the Lords anointed).17
A Tragic End
1000 BC: Samuel dies (1Sam 28:3). Saul solicits the witch of Endor to call up Samuel (1Sam 28:4-7). He prophesies Saul will die the next day. In a battle with the Philistines on Mt. Gilboa, three of Sauls sons die; Saul is wounded and falls on his sword (1Sam 31). Davids Lament (2Sam 1:17-27). Davids service is dismissed by the Philistines. The Amalekites raze Ziklag and take the wives of Davids men (1Sam 28-2Sam 1). David and 400 men recapture the women, but 200 men cannot go. David shares the plunder equally with them, and with the elders of Judah.
If Saul had been taken alive, he most likely would have faced a gruesome death. In the ancient world, it was common for prisoners, particularly important prisoners, to undergo a slow, painful execution. Assyrian reliefs make that evident, sometimes depicting people impaled on stakes or even being skinned alive. The passing of Saul was a tragic end for one with such potential early in his reign. The passing of Jonathan was a tragic loss of friendship for David.18
Why did David have to wait so long, and go through so much before he became King of Israel?
992 BC: Ark returned to Jerusalem to a tent (2Sam 6). The tabernacle remains in Gibeon (1Chr 16). David desires to build a temple to house the ark (2Sam 7; 1Chr 17). God sends Nathan to David with the Davidic Covenant instead, promising a perpetual throne to his offspring (2Sam 7:12-29). Ps 105, 96.
And David was dancing before the Lord with all his might, and David was wearing a linen ephod. So David and all the house of Israel were bringing up the ark of the Lord with shouting and the sound of the trumpet. 2 Samuel 6:14-15
Once again we see how David was a man after Gods own heart. He placed personal dignity aside and danced with everything he had. This moment illustrates the difference between Saul and David. Saul was always concerned with how he would be perceived by other people. David was not. He danced before an audience of one, even as others watched on in contempt.20
A House for the Lord
David expressed a deep longing to provide a house for the Lord. Although his desires were affirmed, the Lord made it clear: This project is for your son (see 1 Kings 5:5). However, the Lord promised even more to David, saying: I will build your house (see 2 Sam. 7:27). In this passage we see one of the clearest expressions of Gods plan to bring his Sons eternal throne to earth.
Gods Covenant with David And it came about, when David dwelt in his house, that David said to Nathan the prophet, Behold, I am dwelling in a house of cedar, but the ark of the covenant of the Lord is under curtains. Then Nathan said to David, Do all that is in your heart, for God is with you. It came about the same night that the word of God came to Nathan, saying, Go and tell David My servant, Thus says the Lord, You shall not build a house for Me to dwell in; for I have not dwelt in a house since the day that I brought up Israel to this day, but I have gone from tent to tent and from one dwelling place to another. In all places where I have walked with all Israel, have I spoken a word with any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to shepherd My people, saying, Why have you not built for Me a house of cedar? Now, therefore, thus shall you say to My servant David, Thus says the Lord of hosts, I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, to be leader over My people Israel. I have been with you wherever you have gone, and have cut off all your enemies from before you; and I will make you a name like the name of the great ones wh