Trend the general course or prevailing tendency; style; vogue fashion; mode
Issues some situation or event that is thought about an important question that is in dispute and must be settled;
What Second Language means? a language learned by a person after his or her native language, esp. as a resident of an area where it is in general use. a language widely used, esp. in trade, government, and education, in a region where all or most of its speakers are nonnative. a non-native language officially recognized and adopted in a multilingual country as a means of public communication a language other than the mother tongue that a person or community uses for public communication, esp in trade, higher education, and administration
Language is always applied whenever it is spoken. The act of applying a language is usually called communication, and it takes place whenever a language is spoken in order to communicate something with someone for whatever reasons, no matter whether or not this communication happens in the mother tongue or in any other language.
Different intellectual standards, metalinguistic awareness, etc Add a subtitle here Reasons when communication is hampered STRUCTURAL PERSONAL Using different semantics, etc CULTURAL Using different languages
APPLIED ENGLISH DEPARTMENT COURSES FOCUS ON THE ACQUISITION OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE FOR THE SAKE OF COMMUNICATION, WITH PROFESSION-ORIENTED COURSES AS VALUE ADDED INGREDIENTS OF DEPARTMENTAL MENUS Applied English departments are teaching a foreign language by offering students a study environment where they would be able to apply the language they are learning within a professional world.
Should academic institutions teach languages at all, thus competing with cram schools, high schools and other language institutions? Should academic institutions prepare their students directly for their future professions, thus competing with vocational and other profession-oriented schools? Two essential questions:
Studying English has a clear structure and goal: to explore at an academic level the linguistic and, in a broad sense, cultural dimensions of a specific language and of the people who speak it as their mother tongue. It is about understanding and analyzing contents and contexts related to the discipline. The problem of applying of what is being studied in class later on in the profession is not directly taken care of in the curricula, for a very good reason: The application is not considered to be a matter of the study but a matter of the student. Application is an intellectual ability coupled with personal skills which solely lie in the hands of the learned individual (see, with respect to learning in general, Spitzer 2009, 356).
The field of application of studies such as English is vast, and job opportunities often come up unexpectedly. People are better prepared for the unexpected if they are open-minded with respect to their future profession, especially at times when it is becoming increasingly important to be able to communicate with other experts from other fields on the basis of ones expertise. Future job designs reckon with an increased demand of flexibility regarding the application of ones knowledge, for new areas of knowledge are permanently created as a result of on-going interdisciplinary cooperation among disciplines which, in the past, had no common borders. Indeed, we dont know what modern job profiles would look like five years from now!
Trends in EFL One of the hottest parenting trends today is giving children language instruction beyond that of their primary, native tongue. Because speaking more than one language can be beneficial academically, can affect the college admission process, and can help determine a childs career trajectory upon reaching adulthood, parents are more determined than ever to help their kids reach bilingual goals. There are several methods for boosting kids linguistic aptitude.
Operating under the theory that childhood is the ideal time for instruction in multiple languages, parents are invested in producing polyglot adults that speak effortlessly in several different tongues. While this approach can be very time consuming and difficult to follow through with, the benefits of speaking fluently in a variety of languages at a very early age are undeniable. Polyglotism For some parents having a bilingual child isnt enough; many modern parents are teaching their children to speak two or even three languages in addition to the childs native tongue.
they are either built around the premise of splitting instructional time evenly between a childs native tongue and her second one for partial immersion or they receive full time second language instruction in classroom settings for full immersion Immersion Immersion language instruction methods are mainly done in these two ways: This method is accomplished often by parents whose children are too young for school or whose schools dont offer second language courses by employing a nanny, Au pair, or other childcare provider that speaks only the second language to a child during her working hours. Parents then take responsibility for instructing their child in her primary language.
Whether intended as a method for communicating before a child becomes verbal as a means of communicating with hearing-impaired friends and relatives, or simply to provide a child with the skill set necessary to speak conversationally with someone whose abilities are different from their own, sign language as a second language is a very popular parenting trend. Sign Language Spoken languages arent the only thing at the top of parental to-do lists these days; sign language is all the rage for progressive parents.
Parents that adopt this method of language instruction speak to their children solely in their native language; as such, the child grows up absorbing the sentence structure, vocabulary, and pronunciation of each language as spoken by a native. This unbiased approach to language instruction can be very effective; while they may become verbal a bit later than their single- language peers, they can have a superior grasp of both languages when they do begin speaking. One Parent, One Language Children whose parents have different primary languages often learn to speak each language with equal fluency by learning via the One Parent, One Language method.
For instance, a child learning to say look in her second language would then pantomime the action of holding binoculars to her eyes, thus connecting the word for look with the action of looking AIM also integrates dance, theater, and music with language instruction, making it a perfect choice for kids that have a love of the arts. Accelerated Integrated Method (AIM) The Accelerated Integrated Method, also known as AIM, is a method of childhood language instruction that is built around the idea that kids learn and retain more of their second-language instruction when they connect physical actions with their words
Some students respond so well to a few hours a week of AIM-based instruction that their fluency level rivals that of their peers in full-immersion programs; depending on a childs individual learning style and temperament, it may be the ideal method of second-language instruction. The most effective method of teaching a child to speak more than one language is the one that suits her individual needs; just as no two children are exactly alike, no two language instruction programs will have the same level of effectiveness In todays increasingly global economy and a shrinking world of connectivity with fellow humans around the globe, the ability to comfortably and confidently speak at least one language apart from primary language can give students and young adults a considerable competitive edge over her peers and, later, her coworkers.
Whichever method that you choose, its important to be fully committed to helping your child master her second language, as she will require the support and assistance of her parents and caregivers in order to absorb and retain it.
Issues in EFL There are many experts that suggest about problem. One of them says that problem will appear if there is inappropriate between exception and reality. Another defines that a problem will happen if someones necessity does not fulfill. A problem is something that if it appears many people will get dissatisfaction. It can make trouble and difficulty for him/herself or other people, and if people procure a problem, they always want to lose it. Problem is perceived gap between the existing state and a desire state, or a deviation from a norm, standard or status quo, although most problems tu