- 1. The Victorian era is generally agreed to stretch through the reign of Queen Victoria. It was a tremendously exciting period when many artistic styles, literary schools, as well as, social, political and religious movements flourished. It was a time of prosperity, broad imperial expansion, and great political reform. It was also a time, which today we associate with "prudishness" and "repression". Without a doubt, it was an extraordinarily complex age, that has sometimes been called the Second English Renaissance. It is, however, also the beginning of Modern Times.
2. The Period is often divided into two parts: the Period (ending around 1870) the Period 3. Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) Robert Browning (1812-1889) Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861) Emily Bronte (1818-1848) Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) Christina Rossetti (1830-1894) George Eliot (1819-1880) Anthony Trollope (1815-1882) Charles Dickens(1812-1870). 4. George Meredith (1828-1909) Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889) Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) Ruryard Kipling (1865-1936) A.E. Housman (1859-1936) Robert Louis Stevenson (1850- 1894). 5. While Tennyson and Browning represented pillars in Victorian poetry, Dickens and Eliot contributed to the development of the English novel. Perhaps the most quintessentially Victorian poetic works of the period is: Tennyson's "In Memorium" (1850), which mourns the loss of his friend. Henry James describes Eliot's "Middlemarch" (1872) as "organized, moulded, balanced composition, gratifying the reader with the sense of design and construction."It was a time of change, a time of great upheaval, but also a time of GREAT literature! 6. Quotes from the Times Youth is a blunder; manhood a struggle; old age a regret Benjamin Disraeli, Coningsby Tis better to have loved and lost/ Than never to have loved at all Alfred, Lord Tennyson, In Memoriam, A.H.H. A mans reach should exceed his grasp,/ Or whats a heaven for? Robert Browning, Andrea del Santo Tennyson Browning 7. the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India. the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German- born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe Coburg Saafeld. 8. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. 9. Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor. They were married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal of St. Jamess Palace, London. Victoria was besotted. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary: 10. I NEVER, NEVER spent such an evening!!! MY DEAREST DEAREST DEAR Albert ... his excessive love & affection gave me feelings of heavenly love & happiness I never could have hoped to have felt before! He clasped me in his arms, & we kissed each other again & again! His beauty, his sweetness & gentleness really how can I ever be thankful enough to have such a Husband! ... to be called by names of tenderness, I have never yet heard used to me before was bliss beyond belief! Oh! This was the happiest day of my life! 11. Albert was diagnosed with typhoid fever by William Jenner, and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated. Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. 12. Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British empire . She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the 13. Victorian Literature Four types of writing were popular during the Victorian Era: Realist Naturalist The Novel Poetry 14. Realism The attempt to produce in art and literature an accurate portrayal of reality Realistic, detailed descriptions of everyday life, and of its darker aspects, appealed to many readers disillusioned by the progress going on around them. Themes in Realist writing included families, religion, and social reform 15. Naturalism Based on the philosophical theory that actions and events are the results not of human intentions, but of largely uncontrollable external forces Authors chose subjects and themes common to the lower and middle classes Attentive to details, striving for accuracy and authenticity in their descriptions 16. The Novel Emily Bronte: Wuthering Heights Charlotte Bronte: Jane Eyre Charles Dickens: Many of his novels were published in serial form. His comic and sentimental descriptions of the lives of people in diverse occupations and social classes made Dickens the most popular Victorian novelist. A Christmas Carol, Great Expectations, David Copperfield Emily Bronte Charlotte Bronte Charles Dickens 17. Poetry Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1892): Most popular Victorian poet. He wrote narrative poems Robert Browning (1812-1889): raised the dramatic monologue to new heightsmaking it a vehicle for deep psychological probing and character study Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806- 1861): with Robert, one of literatures greatest love affairs. Wrote love sonnets valued for their lyric beauty 18. * * CROSING THE BAR * * MY LAST DUCHESS * * SONNETS FROM THE PORTUGUESE * * DOVER BEACH * * FELIX RANDAL 19. (6 August 1809 6 October 1892) Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets. 20. Tennyson excelled at penning short lyrics, such as "Break, Break, Break", "The Charge of the Light Brigade", "Tears, Idle Tears" and "Crossing the Bar". Much of his verse was based on classical mythological themes, such as Ulysses, although In Memoriam A.H.H. was written to commemorate his best friend Arthur Hallam, a fellow poet and fellow student at Trinity College, Cambridge, who was engaged to Tennyson's sister, but died from a brain hemorrhage before they could marry. Tennyson also wrote some notable blank verse including Idylls of the King, "Ulysses," and "Tithonus." During his career, Tennyson attempted drama, but his plays enjoyed little success. 21. A number of phrases from Tennyson's work have become commonplaces of the English language, including "Nature, red in tooth and claw", "'Tis better to have loved and lost / Than never to have loved at all", "Theirs not to reason why, / Theirs but to do and die", "My strength is as the strength of ten, / Because my heart is pure", "To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield", "Knowledge comes, but Wisdom lingers", and "The old order changeth, yielding place to new". He is the ninth most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. 22. "Crossing the Bar" is an 1889 poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson that is traditionally the last poem in collections of his work. It is thought that Tennyson wrote it as his own elegy, as the poem has a tone of finality about it. The narrator uses an extended metaphor to compare death to crossing the "sandbar" between the tide or river of life, with its outgoing "flood," and the ocean that lies beyond death, the "boundless deep," to which we return. 23. Tennyson wrote the poem after a serious illness while at sea, crossing the Solent from Aldworth to Farringford on the Isle of Wight. It has also been suggested he wrote it while on a yacht anchored in Salcombe. The words, he said, "came in a moment" Shortly before he died, Tennyson told his son Hallam to "put 'Crossing the Bar' at the end of all editions of my poems 24. The poem contains four stanzas that generally alternate between long and short lines. Tennyson employs a traditional ABAB rhyme scheme. Scholars have noted that the form of the poem follows the content: the wavelike quality of the long- then-short lines parallels the narrative thread of the poem. 25. The extended metaphor of "crossing of bar" represents traveling serenely and securely from life through death. The Pilot is a metaphor for God, whom the speaker hopes to meet face to face. Tennyson explained, "The Pilot has been on board all the while, but in the dark I have not seen him[He is] that Divine and Unseen Who is always 26. (7 May 1812 12 December 1889) an English poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. In 1845, Browning met the poet Elizabeth Barrett, six years his elder, who lived as a semi- invalid in her father's house in Wimpole Street, London. They began regularly corre