Voyager mission

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Pablo Andrs Dorado SurezVOYAGER PROGRAM


ONCE UPON A TIMEThe Voyager program started as an observation mission which launched two space probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to take advantage of an unusually convenient planetary alignment between Saturn Neptune in the late 70s and make studies in Jupiter and Saturn.


LaunchThe twin spacecraft Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were launched by NASA in separate months in the summer of 1977 from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

THE PLANETARY VOYAGE (1977-1989)They were part of the 70s Grand Tour, which made studies of Jupiter and Saturn, taking advantage of the gravitational help of these planets.When this part finishes, they were allowed to keep being listened from the JPL centre in Pasadena, California.With this permission, they were adjusted to fly and study Uranus and Neptune.Then they discovered many interesting things that changed the study of space as we knew it. Some of them are the discover of new satellites, volcanos, a ring system in Uranus, etc.



The Greatest Voyagers discovery was the volcanic structure of the satellite Io.They also saw Jupiters magnetosphere, geology, and other important data to understand its structureFirst approach to Jupiter in 1979.Video of a 60 day Jupiters period

SATURNWhile passing behind Saturn (as viewed from Earth), Voyager 2 probed Saturn's upper atmosphere with its radio link to gather information on atmospheric temperature and density profiles.Voyager 2 found that at the highest pressure levels (seven kilopascals of pressure), Saturn's temperature was 70 kelvins (203 C), while at the deepest levels measured (120 kilopascals) the temperature increased to 143 K (130 C).The north pole was found to be 10 kelvins cooler, although this may be seasonal (see also Saturn Oppositions).

URANUSThe closest approach to Uranus occurred on January 24, 1986, when Voyager 2 came within 81,500 kilometres (50,600 miles) of the planet's cloud tops. Voyager 2 also discovered 10 previously unknown moons of Uranus; studied the planet's unique atmosphere, caused by its axial tilt of 97.8; and examined the Uranian ring system.

NEPTUNEVoyager 2's closest approach to Neptune occurred on August 25, 1989.Since this was the last planet of our Solar System that Voyager 2 could visit, the Chief Project Scientist, his staff members, and the flight controllers decided to also perform a close fly-by of Triton, the larger of Neptune's 2 originally known moons, so as to gather as much information on Neptune and Triton as possible, regardless of what angle that Voyager 2 would fly away from Neptune at.This was just like the case of Voyager 1's encounters with Saturn and its massive moon Titan.

THE INTERSTELLAR MISSION (1990)With both probes coming out of the solar system, the mission of the voyager program started calling The Interstellar Mission.Since this time, the had studied the different effects of the sun in our solar system, looking for the heliopause.When they arrive there, theyll continue sending information about the interstellar space (outside our suns influence)Finally, its expected that the RPGs which give them the energy for their scientific instruments will be over, with the consequent finish of the mission between 2025 and 2030.

So, Where are they now?In 2003, Voyager 1 informs that has passed the solar systems final frontierThen, in 2005, both Voyagers were outside the sun gas influence and in the heliosheat.In 2008, Voyager 2, took this picture of the Milky Way.In 2009, both passed the heliosheat, entering to the heliopause, the final border of our solar system.

And now?Also, Voyager 1 completed 12,000 days from its launch on June 28, 2010.Actually, they are sending information from outside the solar system.

NOTE: Until now, theyve sent more than one trillion bits of scientific data.

YearDateVoyager 1Radial Distance (Million Kms)Heliographic LatitudeHeliographic Rotating LongitudeHeliographic Inertial Longitude201016 Sept17,149.90 34.434.4122.6173.7

YearDateVoyager 2Radial Distance (Million Kms)Heliographic LatitudeHeliographic Rotating LongitudeHeliographic Inertial Longitude201016 Sept13,950.00-29.1165.9217.0


WHATS THAT?Pioneers 10 and 11, which preceded Voyager, both carried small metal plaques identifying their time and place of origin for the benefit of any other spacefarers that might find them in the distant future. With this example before them, NASA placed a more ambitious message aboard Voyager 1 and 2-a kind of time capsule, intended to communicate a story of our world to extraterrestrials.NASA

Whats inside that?The Voyagers Golden Record is a 30cm gold-covered copper phonograph disc, with the title of The Sounds of Earth.Inside it, theres our world history, as well as our culture.It has three parts

First part: Greetings From EarthWhen the playing starts, it begins with a greeting from the president of the US those years, president Carter.Then, theres a greeting form the General Secretary of the UN.Finally, there are greetings from 55 languages all over the world

SECOND part: SOUNDS OF Earth AND MUSIC FROM EARTHAfter the greetings, we can hear some daily sounds from our planet (Remasterized).Finally, theres a little selection of worlds music, such as Mozart, Beethoven, and actual singers (to 1974).