4G TechnologyPresented By Nithin Raj
4G Definition4G is not one defined technology or standard, but rather a collection of technologies at creating fully packet-switched networks optimized for data.
4G Networks are projected to provide speed of 100Mbps while moving and 1Gbps while stationary.
0G (Zero Generation Mobile System)At the end of the 1940s, the first radio telephone service was introduced, and was designed to users in cars to the public land-line based telephone network.
In the 1960s, a system launched by Bell Systems, called, Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), brought quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. The very first analog systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early 70s.
1G Technology1G refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology was developed in 1970s.
1G had two major improvements:the invention of the microprocessorthe digital transform of the control link between the phone and the cell site. Analog signal
2G TechnologyAround 1980s
Better quality & capacity - More people could use there phones at the same time
Digital Signals consist of 0s & 1s
Previous Technology - 2GDigital consist of 0s and 1sDigital signal:1.Low level, 2.High level, 3.Rising edgeand 4.Falling edge
Previous Technology - 2GDigital data can be compressed and multiplexed much more effectively than analog voice encodingsMultiplexing -multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal For 1 and 2G standards, bandwidth maximum is 9.6 Kbit/sec, (I.E) approximately 6 times slower than an ISDN
Previous Technology - 2GAllows for lower powered radio signals that require less battery
PowerCODEC introduction -program that encodes and decodes digital data stream or signalTranslates data from digital to analog and vice versa
Previous Technology - 2G
Advantages in Previous Technology - 2G
The digital voice encoding allows digital error checkingincrease sound qualitylowers the noise levelGoing all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data transferSMS short message serviceE-mail
Disadvantages in Previous Technology - 2GCell towers had a limited coverage area Jagged Decay curveAbrupt dropped callsAnalog gradual sound reduction Spotty coverage
3G TechnologyLarge capacity and broadband capabilities
Allows the transmission of 384kbps for mobile systems and up to 2Mbps
Increased spectrum efficiency 5MhzA greater number of users that can be simultaneously supported by a radio frequency bandwidthHigh data rates at lower incremental cost than 2GGlobal roaming
Previous Technology - 3GCDMA Code Division Multiple Access
Form of multiplexing
Does not divide up the channel by time or frequency
Encodes data with a special code associated with each channel
Code Division Multiple Access
Types of MultiplexingFDMA Frequency Division Multiple AccessEach phone call is allocated one frequency for the entire duration of the call
Types of MultiplexingTDMA - Time Division Multiple Access Each phone call is allocated a spot in the frequency for a small amount of time, and "takes turns" being transmitted
Types of MultiplexingCDMA - Code Division Multiple Access Each phone call is uniquely encoded and transmitted across the entire spectrum, in a manner known as spread spectrum transmission
Reasons for New ResearchEven though 3G has successfully been introduced to mobile users, there are some issues that are debated by 3G providers and users.High input fees for the 3G service licenses
Great differences in the licensing terms
3G phones are expensive
What is 4G?Fourth Generation TechnologyFaster and more reliable100 Mb/s Lower cost than previous generationsMulti-standard wireless systemBluetooth, Wired, Wireless Ad Hoc NetworkingIPv6 CoreOFDM used instead of CDMAPotentially IEEE standard 802.11nMost information is proprietary
Communications ArchitectureBroadcast layer: fix access points, (i.e.) cell tower connected by fiber, microwave, or satellite (ISP) Ad-hoc/hot-spot layer:wireless LANs (i.e. internet at Starbucks)
Communications ArchitecturePersonal Layer Gateway:devices that connect to upper layers; cell phone, fax, voice, data modem, MP3 players, PDAs
Info-Sensor layer:environmental sensors
Fiber-optic wire layer: high speed subterranean labyrinth of fiber optic cables and repeaters
Ad Hoc NetworksSpontaneous self organization of networks of devices
Not necessarily connected to internet
4G will create hybrid wireless networks using Ad Hoc networks
Form of mesh networkingVery reliable
Enhance Mobile GamingExperience enhance wireless capabilities that deliver mobile gaming interaction with less than five seconds
Play online multi player games while traveling at high speeds or sitting outside
Broadband access in Remote location4G will provide a wireless alternative for broadband access
I will provide first opportunity for broadband access in remote locations without an infrastructure to support cable or DSL access.