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Skyline engineering contracts (India) pvt. Ltd. SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT 09/06/2016 - 23/07/2016 RESIDENTIAL BUILDING Submitted by : SUMIT SINGH Civil engineering department 4rth year Roll.no. 1309000107

Construction of residential building

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Page 1: Construction of residential building

Skyline engineering contracts (India) pvt. Ltd.


09/06/2016 - 23/07/2016


Submitted by :


Civil engineering department

4rth year

Roll.no. 1309000107

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I hereby declare that this submission is my own and that to the best of my

knowledge and belief, it contains no matter previously published or written by

neither person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for

the award of my other degree or diploma of the university and other institution of

higher learning except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text.



ROLL NO:- 103000107

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I would like to acknowledge the contributions made by various people for of the

summer training programme and project report submission as a part of curriculum

for the degree of Bachelor of Technology, Civil Engineering and for providing me

a helping hand in the making of this particular project.

Firstly I would like to thank, Mr. Dheerendra Kumar Singh (HOD of Civil Engg.,

IEC-CET) for meticulously planning academic curriculum in such a way that

students are not only academically sound but also industry ready by including

such industrial training patterns.

I would also like to acknowledge and my heartfelt gratitude to my

civil department faculties and my dear friends who continuously supported me in

every possible way, from initial advice to encouragement till this date.

I would like to mention the work and hard work put in by our Mentor: Mr. SAKTI


support and guidance.

Also I would like to thank Mr. DHURENDERA SINGH( PROJECT MANEGER)

who has given me this opportunity to carry out the training program.

I am also thankful to the Engineering Staff of Skyline engineering contracts

(India) pvt. Ltd.

present on the site for providing me full assistance on the site.

Finally I would like to thanks my parents who have always supported ,

encouraged and helped me all through my life

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Introduction to Company 04

Machinery used 05

Introduction to project 07

Project details 08

Building materials 16

Batching of concrete 26

Demarcation /layout procedure 31

Rcc slab & beam casting 38

Staircase construction 40

Brickwork 43

Ongoing work 45

Conclusion 47

Bibliography 48

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Introduction to Company

"It was a proud day for me in 1964 when I participated in the launching of skyline

Construction Company by my late father Sri Jugal Kishore Guliani. It was then the

beginning of a very strong belief and conviction that Skyline and my own destinies

will be inextricably linked. After I graduated from IIT (Delhi), I officially joined

Skyline. Now Forty years later as The Managing Director of Skyline Engineering

Contracts (India) Pvt. Ltd. as the company is now Known, I'm Proud that we have

grown into a well-known and well-respected construction company that has many

rich traditions along with a proud heritage.

Not only do we have a past that we can be proud of, but, we hold dear to our

hearts, the future hopes and aspirations of the professionals who guide this

company. Without doubt we have the people and the resources to lead this

company to a bright future. We have reached thus far owing to hard work,

dedication and determination of the team that drives this organization. We have

earned the trust and respect of the giants of Indian industry and I'm confident, that

we will grow from strength to strength in our endeavor to make this company into

one that delivers value and satisfaction to our growing base of valued clients.

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Machinery used



Particulars of Machinery, Tools, Plant,

Centering and Shuttering etc. owned by



1 Concrete Batching Plant (Capacity 30 m3

per Hr.)

6 Nos.

2 Concrete Mini Batching Plant

(Universal/Gamzen make) (Capacity 15 m3

per Hr.)

20 Nos.

3 Concrete Pump (Capacity 30 m3 per Hr.) 12 Nos.

4 Transit Mixers. 10 Nos.

5 Concrete Mixers (Full bag capacity) 45 Nos.

6 Concrete Mixers (Half bag capacity) 12 Nos.

7 Concrete Vibrators 100 Nos.

8 Tower Cranes 4 Nos.

9 Builder Hoists 20 Nos.

10 Shuttering Plates 45000 S.q.m.

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11 Cup-lock Pipe Staging 200000 Rm.

12 Steel Props 20000 Nos.

13 Water Pumps 60 Nos.

14 Electric Motors (4 to 10 HP) 35 Nos.

15 Gas Cutters 25 Nos.

16 Welding Machines 20 Nos.

17 Drilling Machines 40 Nos.

18 Diesel Generators (125 KVA) 15 Nos.

19 Diesel Generators (62 KVA) 20 Nos.

29 Floor Grinding Machines 30 Nos.

21 Tremix Vacuum De-watering System 15 Nos.

22 Hydraulic Excavator - (0.9m3 bucket


4 Nos.

23 JCB Excavator/ Loader. 6 Nos.

24 Dumpers – 9 MT. 15 Nos.

25 Crane – 90 MT capacity. 02 Nos.

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Introduction to Project

A new neighborhood as it takes shape is all set to redefine contemporary urban

living in Gurgaon. Assotech blith is an elegant compilation of the finest set of high-

rise residences that are a perfect blend of comfort and convenience. Ambitious,

iconic & dynamic, these residential towers provide a unique mix of style and

perfection. With excellent connectivity to NH-8 & IGI Airport and also the proximity

of a Metro station ensures your home at Assotech blith is never too far from

anything. Spread over 11 Acres of carefully crafted landscape the complex

ensures an ecological twist to your urban living.

The premium residences are available in a choice of 2, 3 & 4 bedroom homes.

Every home in Universal Aura has been created with your needs in mind, with

spacious living room, large windows that allow maximum natural light and present

stunning views of the landscape around. With only 4 apartments on each floor,

you can be rest assured of your privacy. Each home affords itself with a secure

car park as well. Imagine an iconic central plaza, just a few steps across your

home – the club house at Assotech blith is the perfect place to entertain your

family with a range of facilities like kids' play area, swimming pool, gymnasium,

spa and several outdoor sports facilities. Apart from the superior facilities of the

clubhouse, there is a super market, all offering a convenient and comfortable


With 24X7 power back-up and a 3 tier security system built as an integral part of

the complex, you can be assured that you are never left in the dark and you &

your family is always safe. For those who appreciate a lavish lifestyle surrounded

by abundance of natural beauty, Assotech blith offers an unparalleled value and


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Living/ Dining Room

Flooring/ Skirting Matt finished stain and abrasion resistant vitreous

tiles / polished vitrified tiles.

Wall Finish Acrylic Emulsion on plaster.

Ceiling Oil bound distemper on plaster.

Lighting Standard makes and brands.

All Bedrooms

Flooring/ Skirting Matt finished stain and abrasion resistant vitreous

tiles / polished vitrified tiles.

Wall Finish Acrylic Emulsion on plaster.

Ceiling Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster.


Flooring Matt Finished / Anti-Skid ceramic tiles.

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Wall Finish

Glazed/Matt finished Ceramic Wall tiles up to

DADO level (approx. 2100 mm).

Oil Bound Distemper on plastered surfaces

above DADO level.

Ceiling Finish Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster.

Sanitary Ware Wash basin and European water closet (EWC) of

standard makes & brands.


Health Faucet along with necessary angle valves

etc. of standard makes and brands.

All toilet floors provided with suitable and

adequate water proofing treatment.

Provision for Installation.


Modular Kitchen Standard makes and brands.

Flooring/Skirting Matt finished ceramic tiles.

Wall Finish 2’ high Ceramic Tiles dado above counter. Oil

Bound Distemper over Plaster in remaining area.

Ceiling Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster.

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Counter Polished Indian Granite or Marble.

Fixtures and Fittings Stainless Steel Sink and mixer of standard makes

and brands Provision for installation of Geysers.


Flooring Matt finished/anti-skid Ceramic Tiles.

Wall Finish Exterior grade paint on plaster.

Ceiling Finish Exterior grade paint on plaster.

Handrail and Parapets Combination of parapet walls and M.S. Handrails

as per the functional and elevation requirements.

External Wall Finish

External Wall Finish External grade Anti-Fungal / Anti algal paint from

reputed makes & brands.

Servant room

Flooring Matt finished ceramic tiles.

Wall Finish Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plaster.

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Ceiling Finish Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plaster.

Servant Toilet

Flooring Matt finished Ceramic Tiles

Wall Finish

Dado of glazed / matt finished Ceramic Wall Tiles.

(Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plastered

surfaces above dado level for remaining areas.

Ceiling Finish Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plaster.

Sanitary Ware Wash basin and Indian water closet (IWC / Orissa

pan) of standard makes.

C.P. Fittings & Accessories

Bib cock. Pillar Cock, Ablution tap along with

necessary angle valves etc. of standard makes

and brands.


Flooring Polished Indian Stone/Indian Marble on Treads,

Risers and Landings

Railing Painted M.S. Handrails and balustrades

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Wall Finish Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster.

Common Passage

Flooring Polished Indian Stone/Indian Marble

Wall Finish Whitewash / oil bound distemper on plaster

Ceiling Finish Whitewash / oil bound distemper on plaster

Doors And Windows

Main Entrance Door Polished Hardwood frame with Polished flush

Door Shutters

Internal Door Painted Hardwood frame with painted Flush



Locks, Handles and Knobs (Mortise & Cylindrical

Locks) from reputed makes and brands.

High quality Steel / Brass Hardware.

Windows & External Glazing Powder Coated Aluminum Frame or UPVC

frame Windows with clear glass.

External Wall Finish

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External Wall Finish External grade anti-fungal / anti-algal paint from

reputed makes and brands

Electrical Wiring And Installation

Fixtures and Fittings

IS Compliant Modular Switches / Sockets,

Distribution Boxes and Circuit breakers from

standard makes and brands.


IS Compliant Copper wiring in Concealed


Adequate provision for light points, fan points,

receptacles and power in all rooms.


Electrical points for Exhaust Fans in Kitchen &


Electrical points for Air-conditioners provided in

appropriate locations in Bedrooms and Living



IS Compliant CPVC water supply pipes with standard valves and accessories IS

Compliant PVC waste pipes and traps. UPVC pipes are also used for solid waste

& drain water pipe.

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Fig. 1.1- Projected Plan

Fig 1.2-front gate

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Fig 1.3-night aesthetic view

Fig. 1.4- Floor Plan of Tower F

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A building structure is composed of different types of the material these materials are called as

building materials. The materials used in the building are on basis of the availability and cost.

To construct a building the essential building material are as follows:

Cement:-The cement, often called the magic power is a fine ground material consisting

of compound of lime, silica, alumina and iron. When mixed with water it forms a paste which

hardened and bind the aggregates (sand, gravel,

crushed rock, etc.) together to form a durable mass called as concrete.

Cement is the binder that holds concrete and mortars together. That is why it plays the

most critical role in giving strength and durability to the building. Cement used for residential

building is basically of three types :

Portland Slag Cement:-Conforming to IS:455, it is a combination of good quality

blast furnace slag from the iron steel industry with clinker.

Portland Pozzolana Cement:-Conforming to IS: 1489, it is a combination of fly

ash (from thermal power plant) with clinker and gypsum.

Pozzolana cement is prepared by grinding Portland cement clinker with pozzolana. This type

of cement is largely used in marine structure.

Ordinary Portland Cement:

33 grade conforming to IS: 269,

43 grade conforming to IS: 8112

and 53 grade conforming to IS: 12269.

The grade number indicates the minimum compressive strength of cement sand

mortar in N/mm2 at 28 days, as tested by above mentioned procedure.

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It is a combination of clinker and gypsum of good quality. Ordinary Portland


is manufactured by first burning at a very high temperature the mixture of calcar


(mainly calcium carbonate) and argillaceous (mainly clay) and then grinding the

product (i.e. clinker) with small amount of gypsum into a fine power known as

Ordinary Portland Cement.

Ordinary Portland Cement of grade 43 has been used in all the works

at the skyline site.


These are cohesionless aggregates of either, rounded sub rounded, angular, subang

ular or flat fragments of more or less unaltered rock of minerals consisting of 90% of

particles of size greater than 0.06 mm and less than 2 mm. Alternatively, these are

coarse grained cohesion less particles of silica derived from the disintegration of rock.

The silt content in sand sample should be less than or equal to 8%. These are of three


Coarse sand:-It is one which contains 90% of particles of size greater than 0.6mm and less

than 2 mm

Medium sand:-It is one, which contains 90 & of particles of particles size greater than 0.2

mm and less than 0.6 mm

Fine sand:-It is one, which contains 90% of particles of size greater than 0.06 mm and less

than 0.2 mm. Proper selection of sand is critical in the durability and performance of concrete

mixture. It should be: Clear, angular and hard, free from clay, mica and soft, flaky material

graded, which means it should be a mix of fine, medium and coarse sand free from

contaminates. Contaminants such as sea salt are consistent in moisture (water) content which

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should not exceed 7%. When mixing concrete the moisture content must be taken into


The price of sand includes three or four components-base cost, transportation

handling and number of Intermediaries. Procuring sand in bulk directly from the source will

be cheaper. Your neighborhood dealer in this case is likely to be costlier, except when you

need smaller quantities.

Building Stone:-Building stones are obtained from the rocks occurring in nature. The

stones are used into construct the foundation, super structure and many of the building

components. The various stones derived from these types of rocks are as follows:

Principal stones from igneous rocks:-Granite, Basalt and Trap.

Principal stones from sedimentary rocks:-Sand stone, Shale, Lime stone.

Principal stones from metamorphic rocks:-Quartzite, slate and marble.

Properties or requirement of good building stone:

a good building stone should possess several characteristics such as high

strength (crushing strength>1000kg/cm ) ,high durability, sufficient hardness

(coefficient of hardness>14) , high resistance to wear , good fire resistance ,specific gravity

more than 2.7 , crystalline structure, high impact value(toughness index> 13) low

water absorption (percentage absorption after

24hour less than 0.6), weather resistance and better appearance.

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Aggregates is a general term applied to those inert (that chemically inactive) material, which

when bounded together by cement, form concrete. Most aggregates used in this country are

naturally occurring aggregates such as sand, crushed rock and gravel.

Aggregates for concrete are divided into three categories:

Fine Aggregates:

Most of which passes through 4.75 mm I.S. sieve and retained on 150 micron.

Coarse Aggregates:

Most of which passes through 63 mm I.S. sieve and retained on 4.75 micron.

Reinforcement Steel

Reinforcing steel contributes to the tensile strength of the concrete. Concrete has low tensile,

but high compressive strength. The tensile deficiency is compensated by reinforcing

the concrete mass through insertion of twisted mild steel bars. Both branded and unbranded

bars are available. It is wise to buy good brands the names of which are marked on

the steel. During construction make sure that steel reinforcement is provided exactly as the

engineering design specification.

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Fig. 1.5 – Reinforcement and other fittings (MS Fan Box, PVC Conduit) in slab


Steel bars/rods should be responsibly clean and free of rust. Bars that cannot be easily bent

manually or mechanically should be rejected. Optimum length bars must not be chosen to

reduce wastage in cutting .To avoid laps, shorter bars must not be accepted Welded length of

the bars should not be accepted

Fe 500 reinforcement steel has been used at skyline site.


The strength and durability of concrete depends also on the amount of water mixed with it. Too

much or too little Water can adversely affect the strength of concrete. After concrete is cast,

water is used to cure it so that the temperature is controlled and concrete matures

slowly. It is very important to use clean, potable water in quality concrete production. Brackish

or salty water must never be used. Contaminated water will produce concrete mortars with

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lower durability, erratic set characteristics and inconsistent colour. The ph of the water

used for mixing of mortar/concrete should not have pH less than 6.


Plain concrete is very strong in compression but its tensile strength is only about

1/10 of the strength in the compression. So, the use of the plain concrete is limited to the

structure in pure compression. Steel being equally strong in compression and tension, is,

therefore, used to reinforce the concrete in a suitable way so that it can be used

to build supporting structure where tension also develops. Concrete, thus reinforced is known

as reinforced concrete .This combination is made because long steel bars can develops its full

strength where it

cannot carry equal amount of compressive force due to itsbuckling which is caused by the sle

nderness. Thus, the combination of concreteand steel bars has proved to be ideal, as the two

material are used to resist the stresses for which they are most suitable.

Fig. 1.6-Columns of RCC at the Skyline Site

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Properties of the reinforced cement concrete:

1) The concrete develops very good bond with the surface of the steel bars and, therefore the

stresses are transferred from one material to the other which cannot resist individually.

2) The steel possesses a high tensile strength, a high modulus of elasticity

and same coefficients of expansion and contraction as concrete. Due to equally

near coefficients, no internal stresses are set up within reinforced concrete due to variation in


3) The coating of cement grout or paste on the surface of the reinforcement protects it from

corrosion and at the same time it does not chemically react with the reinforcement.

Advantages of the reinforcement cement concrete:

It is overall economical in ultimate cost. Its monolithic character provides more rigidity to the

structure. It is highly durable and fire resisting. It is not affected by the vermins termites

fungus or such other insects. Well-compacted R.C.C. structure is impermeable to moisture

penetration. Care and cost of maintenance of R.C.C. structure are almost negligible. The fluidity

of the concrete and flexibility of reinforcement make it to possible to mould the R.C.C.

members into variety of shapes desired.

Design philosophy

R.C.C. design of building is being carried out mainly by three methods of design. They are

namely: (1) Working stress method (2) Ultimate load method and (3) Limit state method.

The Limit state method is now is vogue in all government design office sand premier private

consulting firms. The B.I.S. have published I.S.: 456-2000 incorporating the use of the Limit

state method of design. The designer should therefore get well versed with the theory of Limit

state method.

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Limit State Method

is a judicious amalgamation of Working Stress Method and Ultimate

Stress Method, removing the drawback of both of the method but retaining

their good points. It is also based on sound scientific principles and backed by 25

year of research .The Limit State Method has proved to have an edge over the Working Stress

Method from the economic point of view. Consequently we need no stick to Working Stress

Method anymore. Besides analytical part of the structural design, following factors should also

be kept in mind while designing the structure. a) Strength of structure. b) Durability of structure.

c) Serviceability of structure during construction as well as during design life time of structure.

d) Economy in building material and ease of constructions. e) Economy in centering and form

work. f) Aesthetics of structure.


Plain Cement Concrete is a composite material used for construction of various civil

engineering structures. It is obtained by mixing the basic ingredients such as cement, Fine

aggregate (normally sand) and coarse aggregate (normally stone pieces) in required

proportions. Water is added in the required measure and the mixture is put into a mechanical

mixer to achieve concrete

PCC of Grades M-30, M-40 and M-45 were used at the site with different design mix.

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Fig. 1.7-Design Mix of M-40

Properties of Cement concrete

Strength of concrete:-

It should be have high compressive strength. The tensile and shear strengths are generally

about 8 to 12% and 8 To 10% of their compressive strength respectively .The compressive

strength of concrete is affected by several factors such as (a) Quality of the material and grading

of the aggregates (b) Water(c) Water cement ratio (d) Cement content (e) Age of the

concrete (f) Method of mixing placing compacting and curing.

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Durability of concrete;-The concrete possess a high durability value, as it is not much

affected by atmospheric action. On the contrary, with the age, the concrete goes on

hardening, thereby increase in the strength. It is this property, which gives this material a distinct

place among the building material.

Elasticity of concrete

The concrete is not a truly elastic material and elastic modulus is effect by the strength, age,

and moisture content of the concrete and the type of the aggregate used. The concrete

undergoes an extra strain in addition to instantaneous strain

on application of a load or stress, sufficient time. This extra strain is called creep of concrete and

is permanent in character not recovered on the removal of load.

Shrinkage of concrete

The concrete has a tendency to shrink under following conditions:-

(a) There is initial shrinkage of cement concrete, which is mainly due to loss of water through

forms, absorption by surface of forms.

(b) The shrinkage of cement concrete occurs as it is hardened. This tendency

of shrinkage on one-hand causes cracks in concrete, while on the other, it grips

the reinforcement tightly and hence proper bond between concrete and reinforcement when

used in R.C.C. work.

Fire resistance of concrete:-

Concrete is good insulator and has a fairly good fire resistance owing to thepresence of pores

and also water.

Workability:-Workability is the most elusive property of concrete. A concrete is said to be

workable if it can be easily mixed, Handled, transported, placed in position and compacted.

A workable concrete should not show any segregation Or bleeding.

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Water cement ratio

Water cement ratio is the ratio of the water in a mix (excluding waterabsorbed

already by the aggregate) to the weight of cement their-in. water cement ratio is the most

important factor governing the strength of concrete. The strength of the concrete depend mainly

open the amount of cement and the amount of water in it. The correct quantity of

water cement ratio required for a particular mix depends upon various factors such as

mix proportions, type and grading of aggregate, method of compaction applied and weather

condition.On the other hand workability of a concrete mix increases as the water content or

water cement ratio of mix increased, because the water lubricate the mixture. But, at the

same time increases in water content deceases the strength. Excess of water, further weaken

the concrete, produces shrinkage cracks and decreases density. Manufacture of the PCC

In the manufacture of concrete, it is almost important to ensure that a concrete of predetermined

proportion is continuously placed in position in such a way that each batch almost like the other

batches as far as possible.

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Batching of the concrete

After fixing the proportion of different ingredients of concrete for a particular work, the material

C.A., F.A., cement and water measured out in batches for mixing. The process is known as

Batching. This process of batching may be carried out by weight or by volume.

(i) Weight batching: -

The unit of weight, for material of concrete, is usually Kilogram. The batching of material by

weight is

absolutely straightforward,the cement, sand and coarse aggregate being all weighed directly i

n Kilogram.

(ii) Volume batching: -

In batching by volume, all ingredient i.e. water, cement, sand and coarse aggregate are

measured in liters, where the resulting concrete (being) solid measured in cubic meters.

Mixing of concrete

Mixing of concrete may be carried out by hand or machine (by using a mechanical mixture) but

the mixing by machine is always preferred.

(i)Mixing by hand: - In this, mixing carried out by hand on a clean, hard and water tight

platform .Firstly cement, sand, aggregate are mixed by hand with the help of the shovel and a

desired quantity of the water added to it and mix properly. This type of mixing carried out in the

small work and unimportant work.

(ii) Mixing in machine: The machine used for mixing concrete is known asmechanical con

crete mixer. There are two main type of concrete mixer is commonly use namely:

Continuous mixers are used in massive construction such as dams, bridges, etc., which

involve the use of large masses of concrete and also required the continuous flow of concrete.

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Batch mixer is most commonly used and consisting of a revolving drum with

blades or baffles inside it. In batch mixer, all the material of desired proportioned mix are fed

into the hopper of the revolving drum on being rotated at a certain speed mixes the material

with the aid of a series of blades providing inside, the resulting mix is finally discharged from the

drum and conveyed for used.

Transporting the concrete

Transporting the concrete mix is defined as the transferring of concrete from the mixing plant to

the construction site. Keep in mind that not all concrete is mixed on the actual construction site

and could require some significant travel. This is most common for ready mixed concrete. The

main objective in transporting concrete

is to ensure that the water cement ratio, slump or consistency, aircontent, homogeneity are

not modified from there intended states. The concrete is transported commonly by the steel


Placing and finishing of concrete

Mixing, transporting, and handling of concrete should be carefully coordinated with placing and

finishing operations. Concrete should not be deposited more rapidly than it can be spread,

struck off, consolidation, and bull floated. Concrete should be deposited continuously

as near as possible to its final position. In slab construction, placing should be started along the

perimeter at one end of the work with each batch placed against previously dispatched

concrete. Concrete should not be dumped in separate piles and then leveled

and worked together; nor should the concrete be deposited in large piles and moved

horizontally into final position.


In some types of construction, the concrete is placed in forms, and then consolidated by

temp. The consolidation

compacts fresh concrete to mold it within theforms and around embedded items and reinforc

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ement and to eliminate stonepockets, honeycomb and entrapped air. It should not remove si

gnificant amount of intentionally entr- ained air.


Either internal or external is the most widely used method for consolidating concrete. When

concrete is vibrated, the internal friction betweenthe aggregate particles is

temporarily destroyed and the concrete behave like a liquid; it settles in the forms under

the action of gravity and the large entrapped air voids

rise more easily to the surface. Internal friction is re-established as soon as vibration stops.


Concrete that will be visible, such as slab like driveway, highway or patios often

need finishing. Concrete slabs can be finished in many ways, depending on the intended

service use. Options include various colors and textures, such as exposed aggregate or

a patterned stamped surface. Some surface may require only

strike off and screeding to proper contour and elevation, while for other surface a

broomed, floated, or troweled finish may be specified. In slab construction screeding or strike

off is the process of cutting off excess concrete to bring the top surface of the slab to proper

grade. A straight edge is

moved acrossthe concrete with a sawing motion and advanced forward a short distance with

each movement.

Bull floating eliminates high and low spots and embeds large aggregate particles immediately

after strike off. This look like a long handled straight edge pulled across

the concrete. Joining is required to eliminate unsightly random cracks. Construction joints are

made with a groover or by inserting strips of plastic, wood, metal, or performed joints

material into the unhardened concrete. Saw cut joints can be made

after theconcrete is sufficiently hard or strong enough to prevent the reveling. Afterthe concret

e has been jointed it should be floated with a wood or metal handfloat or with

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a finishing machine using float blades. This

embeds aggregateparticles just beneath the surface; removes slight imperfections, humps, a

nd voids; and compacts the mortar at the surface in preparation for addition finishing operations.

Where a smooth, hard, dense surface is desired, floating

shouldbe followed by steel troweling. Troweling should not be done on a Surface that has not

been floated; troweling after only bull floating is not an adequate finish procedure. A slip resistant

surface can be produced by brooming before the concrete has thoroughly hardened but it

should be sufficient hard to retain the scoring impression.

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Demarcation/layout Procedure

The following procedure is recommended for demarcation of a building.

For layout of a building baseline is marked on the ground either from centre

line of the road or from any permanent building nearby. This line helps to

mark out the front of a building. Side baseline is also marked with the help

of side structure or road or it can be marked with the help of first baseline

or boundary of the plot.

Fix temporary pegs at the centre line of walls/columns on both sides of

walls and columns in front and back side.

Fix peg at the centre line of walls/columns on both sides of wall and

columns in left and right side of front of building.

Check diagonals of the square or rectangle formed after fixing pegs.

Construct Burji or marking pillars with pegs at a distance of 1.5 meter to 2

meters and their top surface should be plastered.

Mark centre line on the top of Burjis with the help of thread (Soot) or with

the Thedolite in big projects and the diagonal and other dimension should

be checked.

Level Burji on all corners of building and the top level is fixed at a proposed

plinth level.

Mark the foundation of walls/columns according to drawing on the ground

with the help of centerline marked on the Burji.

Mark foundation trenches on the ground with chalk powder.

Excavate the foundation of the walls /columns up to required level and the

excavation must be checked with the help of centre line and level burji to

avoid any complication later on.

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Advantages of Layout with the help of Burjis

It saves time for measuring and setting of point again and again at the time

of construction.

It increases the efficiency of mason and foreman for doing their jobs.

Accuracy can be checked at any time at any step.

If any mistake is found, it can be easily be rectified at early stage. It is very

difficult to rectify the mistake in later.

Cross check can be done by senior engineer in minimum time.

A qualitative work is maintained.

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Disadvantages for doing the work without layout

At some sites of work the contractor brings steel pieces, erects the same on the ground and

start the work of excavation. In due course these steel pieces are just discarded. Thus no

proper reference point is available while doing further jobs.

It involves extra time for measuring the offset again and again.

Accuracy can not be checked at early stage and it will be very difficult to rectify the

same in later stage.

It involves wastage of time and money while doing rectification. This also leads to bad

quality of work.

Materials used during Setting up of Layout

1. Leveling Instrument

2. Balli

3. Long Nails

4. Hammer

5. Right Angle(Guniya)

6. Steel Tape

7. Thin Cotton Thread

8. Bricks

9. Cement

10. Screen Sand

11. Lime Powder

12. Theodolite

Method Statement for Columns

To provide true line & position of columns/walls we shall provide starter/kicker for each

column & shear walls, column wall position shall be marked on raft/slab top for providing


Starters shall be made of 100 mm x 50 mm channel section.

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Concreting of starter will proceed after checking of layout with necessary clearance from


thick film coated ply with backing angles at the

edges and flat at the center about 300C/C both ways. The lift for columns will be of 2.4

m height in general but however this may vary depending on requirement.

Vertical reinforcement bars and Stirrups shall be provided as per Drawings & BBS

Checked by clients and suitably tied with binding wire.

The reinforcement bars shall be held in position rigidly from sway by suitable scaffolding


Proper cover to the reinforcement shall be ensured by providing adequate numbers of

concrete cover blocks.

Column shutters shall be erected true to line and plumb and adequate supports shall be

provided to keep the same in position during & after concreting.

Proper staged platform will be provided for concreting.

Concrete pour card as per approved format shall be made and maintained for each pour

duly signed by client & Simplex.

Columns shall be poured in layers of 300 mm thick and each layer shall be vibrated


Adequate numbers of manpower in terms of skilled and unskilled shall be made available

to receive the concrete.

Proper lighting arrangements shall be made for night works.

Construction and expansion joints shall be provided and treated as per


Any loose deposited concrete afterwards shall be removed & disposed off.

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Hessian cloth shall be wrapped around the column/wall for keeping the element wet for

minimum of 14 days.

De-shuttering shall be done after 12 hours/24 hours after casting of individual pours as

per Technical requirements and codal provisions.

FORMWORK ‘Temporary Supporting Structures’ are those structures,

which are temporarily required in building construction either for supporting the

laying of concrete till it gets matured, such as formwork or forms or shuttering

. As fresh concrete is in a plastic state, when it is placed for construction purposes,

so it becomes necessary to provide some temporary structure to confine and

support the concrete, till it gains sufficient strength for self-supporting. The

temporary structure is known as Formwork or shuttering.

Conventional Shuttering has been used at skyline site

Fig. 1.9– Formwork and Shuttering provided at the skyline site

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Requirement of the formwork

Good forms for concrete structure should satisfy the following requirements; (1) It

should be strong enough to resist the pressure or the weight of the fresh concrete

and the superimposed loads due to equipment, men etc. This requires careful

design of formwork, because the consideration of overloads will affects

the economy whereas of under loads may cause failure of the forms work.(2) It

should be rigid enough to retain the shape without undue deformation.(3) It must

be made or constructed so light that it does not allow the cement paste to

leak through the joints.(4) The inside surface of the formwork should be smooth

so as to give good appearance to the resulting concrete surface. To achieve this,

the inside surface of formwork is usually applied with crude oil or soft soap

solution. This also facilitates the removal of the formwork.(5) The entire formwork

should be so made that it can be removed easily without causing the least injury

to the surface or edges of the concrete.(6) It should be made economical by

reducing the cost through proper design, construction and use of formwork.

Removal of the formwork

The period for which forms should be left in place depends upon the temperature

of air, the shape and position of structural member (i.e. horizontal vertical or

inclined), the nature of the loads likely to come and the character of the cement

and cement paste. Generally, the use of rapid hardening cement, higher

temperatures, low water cement ratio and lighter loads, will permit early removal

of formwork. Under normal conditions where temperature is above20ºC and

ordinary cement is use, forms may be removed after the expiry of the period given

below: Particulars of the structural period of member removing of formwork (a)

Vertical slides of slabs, beams 24 to 48 hours columns and wall(b) Slabs (props

or vertical supporting 3 days member left under)(c) Beams soffits (props left

under) 7 days(d) Bottom of slabs up to a span 7 days of 4.5 m.(e) Bottom of slabs

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above 4.5 m 14 days span, bottom of the beams up to 6 m span, and bottom of

arch ribs up to 6 m span(f) Bottom of beams over 6 m span 21 days and bottom

of arch ribs over 6 m span.


Materials and Machinery used

Batching plant.

Transit mixer

Concrete pump


Chute and CI Pipes

Scope of the work

Marking the slab

Placing the reinforcement

Form work for slab

Placing the concrete


It shall be as per BBS prepared according to approved drawing. The R/F shifting

and binding shall be started as soon as shuttering is completed. R/F binding shall

continue as formwork and shuttering work is progresses.


Construction joint

The construction joint shall be pre decided and fixed prior to start of the

concreting. It is planned to have two construction joints for main building as

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decided. In case of major break down of the Batching plant, the additional

Construction joint may be left. The location of the construction joint shall be at the

one-third span. Construction joint shall be straight and have profile of ‘L’shape so

that successive layer of concrete shall be perfectly bonded with previous laid


Preparation of construction joint shall include roughening, removing all laitance

adhering to the joint and application of thick slurry before start of the new concrete.

Production and placement of concrete.

Stock of material shall be sufficient to start the concrete. It shall be ensured by

stores/purchase dept that concreting is not stopped on account of materials.

All plant and machinery are checked and made in working conditions.

Concrete of grade M-25 shall be produced from our batching plant and directly

pumped to the location of concrete placement through the pipeline. The pouring

sequence shall be from grid A towards construction joint. Since the grade of

concrete for column is M-40 and surrounding concrete is M-25, sufficient offset

around column shall be casted with M-40.The offset dimensions shall be provided

by PMC.

Proper walkways/platforms shall be arranged so that the supports of the pipeline

and manpower are not directly stand on reinforcement.

Sufficient carpenters along with supervisor shall inspect the behavior of supports

below the slab during the casting. Extra Props shall be stocked below slab to

provide additional supports in case of any failure of supports.

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The curing shall be started immediately after thumb set of the concrete laid.

Hessian clothe /Plastic shall be covered over the set concrete to reduce moisture

evaporation from the concrete during hardening and thus to minimize shrinkage

crazy cracks. These cracks are inheriting property of the concrete specially

appears during casting of flat surfaces.

Final curing shall be done by ponding and stacking water for minimum period of

7 days.


Staircase is constructed in the same way as columns and slabs.With the help of

drawings we will make formwork and reinforcement is done. After that concreting

is done. Followed by curing and DE shuttering

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Bricks can be of two types. These are:

1) Traditional Bricks-The dimension if traditional bricks vary from 21 cm to 25cm

in length,10 to 13 cm in width and 7.5 cm in height in different parts of country

.The commonly adopted normal size of traditional brick is 23 * 11.5*7.5 cm with a

view to achieve uniformity in size of bricks all over country.

2) Modular Bricks– Indian standard institution has established a standard size of

bricks such a brick is known as a modular brick. The normal size of brick is taken

as 20*10*10 cm whereas its actual dimensions are 19*9*9 cm masonry with

modular bricks workout to be cheaper there is saving in the consumption of bricks,

mortar and labour as compared with masonry with traditional bricks.


The permissible compressive stress in brick masonry depends upon the following


1. Type and strength of brick.

2. Mix of motor.

3. Size and shape of masonry construction.

. Fly ash bricks exhibit almostsimilar mechanical properties as brunt clay bricks. Exposed

brickwork with precise pointing is possible if the shapes are perfect.

Bricks used for the project are of Class A , size 230mm x 115mm x 75mm.

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Layout of the Floor Partitions- Tower F 19th Floor Layout

Fig. 1.10– Layout for Partition Wall

Masonry Wall Construction

Masonry walls are the most durable part of any building or structure. They provide

strength,, durability to the structure and also helps to control indoor and outdoor

temperature. It separates a building from outside world.

Masonry is the word used for construction with mortar as a binding material with

individual units of bricks, stones, marbles, granites, concrete blocks, tiles etc.

Mortar is a mixture of binding material with sand. Binding materials can be

cement, lime, soil or any other.

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The durability and strength of masonry wall construction depends on the type and

quality of material used and workmanship.

Mortar Ratio used for 4 Inches wall is 1:4 and for 9 Inches wall is 1:6.

Fig. 1.11– Masonry Wall Construction

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Under the guidance of Mr. Kapil Bhardwaj (Sr. Manager - Projects) as a mentor, we have got

opportunity to understand the technical and managerial aspect of residential housing project.

The main aim of studies within this project was to investigate how a structure is constructed within

its desired properties. We got to know about the basic & advanced techniques of building

construction as well as saw the challenges which a civil engineer have to face during construction

i.e. labor problems, cost management, environmental challenges etc. We cleared our many doubts

regarding building construction. Overall it must be said that the construction methods and quality

control on a residential project needs a very good coordination and large quantities of man power,

equipment and funds. During the period of 45 days all the site staff helped us a lot to provide all the

information about any query. So we are grateful to Universal Buildwell Pvt. Ltd for giving us the

opportunity to learn and grow.

A residential area is a land use in which housing predominates, as opposed

to industrial and commercial areas. Housing may vary significantly between, and through,

residential areas. These include single-family housing, multi-family residential, or mobile

homes. Zoning for residential use may permit some services or work opportunities or may totally

exclude business and industry. It may permit high density land use or only permit low density uses.

This report mainly concerns with the construction of residential building. I have done training at

Skyline engineering contracts (India) pvt. Ltd.

There were seven towers namely A, B, C, D, E, F & G.

I was assigned the B&B’ tower. But my trainer Atul sir went home on a vacation so I was told to

go to every tower where ever I want and can learn from any engineer of any tower.

Foramens also did help me a lot in gaining practical knowledge. Every tower was erected up to

19- 20 floors.on my arrival.

I was on the 19 th floor and I saw how the column was erected. After that shuttering for slab and

beams was used .

I also saw the shuttering of stair cases used in the buildings . after that concreting pouring of

concrete in the buildings. Brickwork was also done along with the construction.

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Building construction by B.C. PUNAMIA .

Instructions from ATUL PANT sir & ER. SAKTI GUPTA sir .

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