Skyline engineering contracts (India) pvt. Ltd.
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT
09/06/2016 - 23/07/2016
Submitted by :
Civil engineering department
I hereby declare that this submission is my own and that to the best of my
knowledge and belief, it contains no matter previously published or written by
neither person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for
the award of my other degree or diploma of the university and other institution of
higher learning except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text.
NaME:- SUMIT SINGH
ROLL NO:- 103000107
I would like to acknowledge the contributions made by various people for of the
summer training programme and project report submission as a part of curriculum
for the degree of Bachelor of Technology, Civil Engineering and for providing me
a helping hand in the making of this particular project.
Firstly I would like to thank, Mr. Dheerendra Kumar Singh (HOD of Civil Engg.,
IEC-CET) for meticulously planning academic curriculum in such a way that
students are not only academically sound but also industry ready by including
such industrial training patterns.
I would also like to acknowledge and my heartfelt gratitude to my
civil department faculties and my dear friends who continuously supported me in
every possible way, from initial advice to encouragement till this date.
I would like to mention the work and hard work put in by our Mentor: Mr. SAKTI
GUPTA( Snr. ENGINEER) & Mr. ATUL PANT( JUNIOR ENGINEER) for his
support and guidance.
Also I would like to thank Mr. DHURENDERA SINGH( PROJECT MANEGER)
who has given me this opportunity to carry out the training program.
I am also thankful to the Engineering Staff of Skyline engineering contracts
(India) pvt. Ltd.
present on the site for providing me full assistance on the site.
Finally I would like to thanks my parents who have always supported ,
encouraged and helped me all through my life
TABLE OF CONTENT
Introduction to Company 04
Machinery used 05
Introduction to project 07
Project details 08
Building materials 16
Batching of concrete 26
Demarcation /layout procedure 31
Rcc slab & beam casting 38
Staircase construction 40
Ongoing work 45
Introduction to Company
"It was a proud day for me in 1964 when I participated in the launching of skyline
Construction Company by my late father Sri Jugal Kishore Guliani. It was then the
beginning of a very strong belief and conviction that Skyline and my own destinies
will be inextricably linked. After I graduated from IIT (Delhi), I officially joined
Skyline. Now Forty years later as The Managing Director of Skyline Engineering
Contracts (India) Pvt. Ltd. as the company is now Known, I'm Proud that we have
grown into a well-known and well-respected construction company that has many
rich traditions along with a proud heritage.
Not only do we have a past that we can be proud of, but, we hold dear to our
hearts, the future hopes and aspirations of the professionals who guide this
company. Without doubt we have the people and the resources to lead this
company to a bright future. We have reached thus far owing to hard work,
dedication and determination of the team that drives this organization. We have
earned the trust and respect of the giants of Indian industry and I'm confident, that
we will grow from strength to strength in our endeavor to make this company into
one that delivers value and satisfaction to our growing base of valued clients.
Particulars of Machinery, Tools, Plant,
Centering and Shuttering etc. owned by
1 Concrete Batching Plant (Capacity 30 m3
2 Concrete Mini Batching Plant
(Universal/Gamzen make) (Capacity 15 m3
3 Concrete Pump (Capacity 30 m3 per Hr.) 12 Nos.
4 Transit Mixers. 10 Nos.
5 Concrete Mixers (Full bag capacity) 45 Nos.
6 Concrete Mixers (Half bag capacity) 12 Nos.
7 Concrete Vibrators 100 Nos.
8 Tower Cranes 4 Nos.
9 Builder Hoists 20 Nos.
10 Shuttering Plates 45000 S.q.m.
11 Cup-lock Pipe Staging 200000 Rm.
12 Steel Props 20000 Nos.
13 Water Pumps 60 Nos.
14 Electric Motors (4 to 10 HP) 35 Nos.
15 Gas Cutters 25 Nos.
16 Welding Machines 20 Nos.
17 Drilling Machines 40 Nos.
18 Diesel Generators (125 KVA) 15 Nos.
19 Diesel Generators (62 KVA) 20 Nos.
29 Floor Grinding Machines 30 Nos.
21 Tremix Vacuum De-watering System 15 Nos.
22 Hydraulic Excavator - (0.9m3 bucket
23 JCB Excavator/ Loader. 6 Nos.
24 Dumpers – 9 MT. 15 Nos.
25 Crane – 90 MT capacity. 02 Nos.
Introduction to Project
A new neighborhood as it takes shape is all set to redefine contemporary urban
living in Gurgaon. Assotech blith is an elegant compilation of the finest set of high-
rise residences that are a perfect blend of comfort and convenience. Ambitious,
iconic & dynamic, these residential towers provide a unique mix of style and
perfection. With excellent connectivity to NH-8 & IGI Airport and also the proximity
of a Metro station ensures your home at Assotech blith is never too far from
anything. Spread over 11 Acres of carefully crafted landscape the complex
ensures an ecological twist to your urban living.
The premium residences are available in a choice of 2, 3 & 4 bedroom homes.
Every home in Universal Aura has been created with your needs in mind, with
spacious living room, large windows that allow maximum natural light and present
stunning views of the landscape around. With only 4 apartments on each floor,
you can be rest assured of your privacy. Each home affords itself with a secure
car park as well. Imagine an iconic central plaza, just a few steps across your
home – the club house at Assotech blith is the perfect place to entertain your
family with a range of facilities like kids' play area, swimming pool, gymnasium,
spa and several outdoor sports facilities. Apart from the superior facilities of the
clubhouse, there is a super market, all offering a convenient and comfortable
With 24X7 power back-up and a 3 tier security system built as an integral part of
the complex, you can be assured that you are never left in the dark and you &
your family is always safe. For those who appreciate a lavish lifestyle surrounded
by abundance of natural beauty, Assotech blith offers an unparalleled value and
Living/ Dining Room
Flooring/ Skirting Matt finished stain and abrasion resistant vitreous
tiles / polished vitrified tiles.
Wall Finish Acrylic Emulsion on plaster.
Ceiling Oil bound distemper on plaster.
Lighting Standard makes and brands.
Flooring/ Skirting Matt finished stain and abrasion resistant vitreous
tiles / polished vitrified tiles.
Wall Finish Acrylic Emulsion on plaster.
Ceiling Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster.
Flooring Matt Finished / Anti-Skid ceramic tiles.
Glazed/Matt finished Ceramic Wall tiles up to
DADO level (approx. 2100 mm).
Oil Bound Distemper on plastered surfaces
above DADO level.
Ceiling Finish Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster.
Sanitary Ware Wash basin and European water closet (EWC) of
standard makes & brands.
Health Faucet along with necessary angle valves
etc. of standard makes and brands.
All toilet floors provided with suitable and
adequate water proofing treatment.
Provision for Installation.
Modular Kitchen Standard makes and brands.
Flooring/Skirting Matt finished ceramic tiles.
Wall Finish 2’ high Ceramic Tiles dado above counter. Oil
Bound Distemper over Plaster in remaining area.
Ceiling Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster.
Counter Polished Indian Granite or Marble.
Fixtures and Fittings Stainless Steel Sink and mixer of standard makes
and brands Provision for installation of Geysers.
Flooring Matt finished/anti-skid Ceramic Tiles.
Wall Finish Exterior grade paint on plaster.
Ceiling Finish Exterior grade paint on plaster.
Handrail and Parapets Combination of parapet walls and M.S. Handrails
as per the functional and elevation requirements.
External Wall Finish
External Wall Finish External grade Anti-Fungal / Anti algal paint from
reputed makes & brands.
Flooring Matt finished ceramic tiles.
Wall Finish Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plaster.
Ceiling Finish Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plaster.
Flooring Matt finished Ceramic Tiles
Dado of glazed / matt finished Ceramic Wall Tiles.
(Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plastered
surfaces above dado level for remaining areas.
Ceiling Finish Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plaster.
Sanitary Ware Wash basin and Indian water closet (IWC / Orissa
pan) of standard makes.
C.P. Fittings & Accessories
Bib cock. Pillar Cock, Ablution tap along with
necessary angle valves etc. of standard makes
Flooring Polished Indian Stone/Indian Marble on Treads,
Risers and Landings
Railing Painted M.S. Handrails and balustrades
Wall Finish Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster.
Flooring Polished Indian Stone/Indian Marble
Wall Finish Whitewash / oil bound distemper on plaster
Ceiling Finish Whitewash / oil bound distemper on plaster
Doors And Windows
Main Entrance Door Polished Hardwood frame with Polished flush
Internal Door Painted Hardwood frame with painted Flush
Locks, Handles and Knobs (Mortise & Cylindrical
Locks) from reputed makes and brands.
High quality Steel / Brass Hardware.
Windows & External Glazing Powder Coated Aluminum Frame or UPVC
frame Windows with clear glass.
External Wall Finish
External Wall Finish External grade anti-fungal / anti-algal paint from
reputed makes and brands
Electrical Wiring And Installation
Fixtures and Fittings
IS Compliant Modular Switches / Sockets,
Distribution Boxes and Circuit breakers from
standard makes and brands.
IS Compliant Copper wiring in Concealed
Adequate provision for light points, fan points,
receptacles and power in all rooms.
Electrical points for Exhaust Fans in Kitchen &
Electrical points for Air-conditioners provided in
appropriate locations in Bedrooms and Living
IS Compliant CPVC water supply pipes with standard valves and accessories IS
Compliant PVC waste pipes and traps. UPVC pipes are also used for solid waste
& drain water pipe.
Fig. 1.1- Projected Plan
Fig 1.2-front gate
Fig 1.3-night aesthetic view
Fig. 1.4- Floor Plan of Tower F
A building structure is composed of different types of the material these materials are called as
building materials. The materials used in the building are on basis of the availability and cost.
To construct a building the essential building material are as follows:
Cement:-The cement, often called the magic power is a fine ground material consisting
of compound of lime, silica, alumina and iron. When mixed with water it forms a paste which
hardened and bind the aggregates (sand, gravel,
crushed rock, etc.) together to form a durable mass called as concrete.
Cement is the binder that holds concrete and mortars together. That is why it plays the
most critical role in giving strength and durability to the building. Cement used for residential
building is basically of three types :
Portland Slag Cement:-Conforming to IS:455, it is a combination of good quality
blast furnace slag from the iron steel industry with clinker.
Portland Pozzolana Cement:-Conforming to IS: 1489, it is a combination of fly
ash (from thermal power plant) with clinker and gypsum.
Pozzolana cement is prepared by grinding Portland cement clinker with pozzolana. This type
of cement is largely used in marine structure.
Ordinary Portland Cement:
33 grade conforming to IS: 269,
43 grade conforming to IS: 8112
and 53 grade conforming to IS: 12269.
The grade number indicates the minimum compressive strength of cement sand
mortar in N/mm2 at 28 days, as tested by above mentioned procedure.
It is a combination of clinker and gypsum of good quality. Ordinary Portland
is manufactured by first burning at a very high temperature the mixture of calcar
(mainly calcium carbonate) and argillaceous (mainly clay) and then grinding the
product (i.e. clinker) with small amount of gypsum into a fine power known as
Ordinary Portland Cement.
Ordinary Portland Cement of grade 43 has been used in all the works
at the skyline site.
These are cohesionless aggregates of either, rounded sub rounded, angular, subang
ular or flat fragments of more or less unaltered rock of minerals consisting of 90% of
particles of size greater than 0.06 mm and less than 2 mm. Alternatively, these are
coarse grained cohesion less particles of silica derived from the disintegration of rock.
The silt content in sand sample should be less than or equal to 8%. These are of three
Coarse sand:-It is one which contains 90% of particles of size greater than 0.6mm and less
than 2 mm
Medium sand:-It is one, which contains 90 & of particles of particles size greater than 0.2
mm and less than 0.6 mm
Fine sand:-It is one, which contains 90% of particles of size greater than 0.06 mm and less
than 0.2 mm. Proper selection of sand is critical in the durability and performance of concrete
mixture. It should be: Clear, angular and hard, free from clay, mica and soft, flaky material
graded, which means it should be a mix of fine, medium and coarse sand free from
contaminates. Contaminants such as sea salt are consistent in moisture (water) content which
should not exceed 7%. When mixing concrete the moisture content must be taken into
The price of sand includes three or four components-base cost, transportation
handling and number of Intermediaries. Procuring sand in bulk directly from the source will
be cheaper. Your neighborhood dealer in this case is likely to be costlier, except when you
need smaller quantities.
Building Stone:-Building stones are obtained from the rocks occurring in nature. The
stones are used into construct the foundation, super structure and many of the building
components. The various stones derived from these types of rocks are as follows:
Principal stones from igneous rocks:-Granite, Basalt and Trap.
Principal stones from sedimentary rocks:-Sand stone, Shale, Lime stone.
Principal stones from metamorphic rocks:-Quartzite, slate and marble.
Properties or requirement of good building stone:
a good building stone should possess several characteristics such as high
strength (crushing strength>1000kg/cm ) ,high durability, sufficient hardness
(coefficient of hardness>14) , high resistance to wear , good fire resistance ,specific gravity
more than 2.7 , crystalline structure, high impact value(toughness index> 13) low
water absorption (percentage absorption after
24hour less than 0.6), weather resistance and better appearance.
Aggregates is a general term applied to those inert (that chemically inactive) material, which
when bounded together by cement, form concrete. Most aggregates used in this country are
naturally occurring aggregates such as sand, crushed rock and gravel.
Aggregates for concrete are divided into three categories:
Most of which passes through 4.75 mm I.S. sieve and retained on 150 micron.
Most of which passes through 63 mm I.S. sieve and retained on 4.75 micron.
Reinforcing steel contributes to the tensile strength of the concrete. Concrete has low tensile,
but high compressive strength. The tensile deficiency is compensated by reinforcing
the concrete mass through insertion of twisted mild steel bars. Both branded and unbranded
bars are available. It is wise to buy good brands the names of which are marked on
the steel. During construction make sure that steel reinforcement is provided exactly as the
engineering design specification.
Fig. 1.5 – Reinforcement and other fittings (MS Fan Box, PVC Conduit) in slab
Steel bars/rods should be responsibly clean and free of rust. Bars that cannot be easily bent
manually or mechanically should be rejected. Optimum length bars must not be chosen to
reduce wastage in cutting .To avoid laps, shorter bars must not be accepted Welded length of
the bars should not be accepted
Fe 500 reinforcement steel has been used at skyline site.
The strength and durability of concrete depends also on the amount of water mixed with it. Too
much or too little Water can adversely affect the strength of concrete. After concrete is cast,
water is used to cure it so that the temperature is controlled and concrete matures
slowly. It is very important to use clean, potable water in quality concrete production. Brackish
or salty water must never be used. Contaminated water will produce concrete mortars with
lower durability, erratic set characteristics and inconsistent colour. The ph of the water
used for mixing of mortar/concrete should not have pH less than 6.
REINFORCED CEMENT CONCRETE
Plain concrete is very strong in compression but its tensile strength is only about
1/10 of the strength in the compression. So, the use of the plain concrete is limited to the
structure in pure compression. Steel being equally strong in compression and tension, is,
therefore, used to reinforce the concrete in a suitable way so that it can be used
to build supporting structure where tension also develops. Concrete, thus reinforced is known
as reinforced concrete .This combination is made because long steel bars can develops its full
strength where it
cannot carry equal amount of compressive force due to itsbuckling which is caused by the sle
nderness. Thus, the combination of concreteand steel bars has proved to be ideal, as the two
material are used to resist the stresses for which they are most suitable.
Fig. 1.6-Columns of RCC at the Skyline Site
Properties of the reinforced cement concrete:
1) The concrete develops very good bond with the surface of the steel bars and, therefore the
stresses are transferred from one material to the other which cannot resist individually.
2) The steel possesses a high tensile strength, a high modulus of elasticity
and same coefficients of expansion and contraction as concrete. Due to equally
near coefficients, no internal stresses are set up within reinforced concrete due to variation in
3) The coating of cement grout or paste on the surface of the reinforcement protects it from
corrosion and at the same time it does not chemically react with the reinforcement.
Advantages of the reinforcement cement concrete:
It is overall economical in ultimate cost. Its monolithic character provides more rigidity to the
structure. It is highly durable and fire resisting. It is not affected by the vermins termites
fungus or such other insects. Well-compacted R.C.C. structure is impermeable to moisture
penetration. Care and cost of maintenance of R.C.C. structure are almost negligible. The fluidity
of the concrete and flexibility of reinforcement make it to possible to mould the R.C.C.
members into variety of shapes desired.
R.C.C. design of building is being carried out mainly by three methods of design. They are
namely: (1) Working stress method (2) Ultimate load method and (3) Limit state method.
The Limit state method is now is vogue in all government design office sand premier private
consulting firms. The B.I.S. have published I.S.: 456-2000 incorporating the use of the Limit
state method of design. The designer should therefore get well versed with the theory of Limit
Limit State Method
is a judicious amalgamation of Working Stress Method and Ultimate
Stress Method, removing the drawback of both of the method but retaining
their good points. It is also based on sound scientific principles and backed by 25
year of research .The Limit State Method has proved to have an edge over the Working Stress
Method from the economic point of view. Consequently we need no stick to Working Stress
Method anymore. Besides analytical part of the structural design, following factors should also
be kept in mind while designing the structure. a) Strength of structure. b) Durability of structure.
c) Serviceability of structure during construction as well as during design life time of structure.
d) Economy in building material and ease of constructions. e) Economy in centering and form
work. f) Aesthetics of structure.
PLAIN CEMENT CONCRETE
Plain Cement Concrete is a composite material used for construction of various civil
engineering structures. It is obtained by mixing the basic ingredients such as cement, Fine
aggregate (normally sand) and coarse aggregate (normally stone pieces) in required
proportions. Water is added in the required measure and the mixture is put into a mechanical
mixer to achieve concrete
PCC of Grades M-30, M-40 and M-45 were used at the site with different design mix.
Fig. 1.7-Design Mix of M-40
Properties of Cement concrete
Strength of concrete:-
It should be have high compressive strength. The tensile and shear strengths are generally
about 8 to 12% and 8 To 10% of their compressive strength respectively .The compressive
strength of concrete is affected by several factors such as (a) Quality of the material and grading
of the aggregates (b) Water(c) Water cement ratio (d) Cement content (e) Age of the
concrete (f) Method of mixing placing compacting and curing.
Durability of concrete;-The concrete possess a high durability value, as it is not much
affected by atmospheric action. On the contrary, with the age, the concrete goes on
hardening, thereby increase in the strength. It is this property, which gives this material a distinct
place among the building material.
Elasticity of concrete
The concrete is not a truly elastic material and elastic modulus is effect by the strength, age,
and moisture content of the concrete and the type of the aggregate used. The concrete
undergoes an extra strain in addition to instantaneous strain
on application of a load or stress, sufficient time. This extra strain is called creep of concrete and
is permanent in character not recovered on the removal of load.
Shrinkage of concrete
The concrete has a tendency to shrink under following conditions:-
(a) There is initial shrinkage of cement concrete, which is mainly due to loss of water through
forms, absorption by surface of forms.
(b) The shrinkage of cement concrete occurs as it is hardened. This tendency
of shrinkage on one-hand causes cracks in concrete, while on the other, it grips
the reinforcement tightly and hence proper bond between concrete and reinforcement when
used in R.C.C. work.
Fire resistance of concrete:-
Concrete is good insulator and has a fairly good fire resistance owing to thepresence of pores
and also water.
Workability:-Workability is the most elusive property of concrete. A concrete is said to be
workable if it can be easily mixed, Handled, transported, placed in position and compacted.
A workable concrete should not show any segregation Or bleeding.
Water cement ratio
Water cement ratio is the ratio of the water in a mix (excluding waterabsorbed
already by the aggregate) to the weight of cement their-in. water cement ratio is the most
important factor governing the strength of concrete. The strength of the concrete depend mainly
open the amount of cement and the amount of water in it. The correct quantity of
water cement ratio required for a particular mix depends upon various factors such as
mix proportions, type and grading of aggregate, method of compaction applied and weather
condition.On the other hand workability of a concrete mix increases as the water content or
water cement ratio of mix increased, because the water lubricate the mixture. But, at the
same time increases in water content deceases the strength. Excess of water, further weaken
the concrete, produces shrinkage cracks and decreases density. Manufacture of the PCC
In the manufacture of concrete, it is almost important to ensure that a concrete of predetermined
proportion is continuously placed in position in such a way that each batch almost like the other
batches as far as possible.
Batching of the concrete
After fixing the proportion of different ingredients of concrete for a particular work, the material
C.A., F.A., cement and water measured out in batches for mixing. The process is known as
Batching. This process of batching may be carried out by weight or by volume.
(i) Weight batching: -
The unit of weight, for material of concrete, is usually Kilogram. The batching of material by
absolutely straightforward,the cement, sand and coarse aggregate being all weighed directly i
(ii) Volume batching: -
In batching by volume, all ingredient i.e. water, cement, sand and coarse aggregate are
measured in liters, where the resulting concrete (being) solid measured in cubic meters.
Mixing of concrete
Mixing of concrete may be carried out by hand or machine (by using a mechanical mixture) but
the mixing by machine is always preferred.
(i)Mixing by hand: - In this, mixing carried out by hand on a clean, hard and water tight
platform .Firstly cement, sand, aggregate are mixed by hand with the help of the shovel and a
desired quantity of the water added to it and mix properly. This type of mixing carried out in the
small work and unimportant work.
(ii) Mixing in machine: The machine used for mixing concrete is known asmechanical con
crete mixer. There are two main type of concrete mixer is commonly use namely:
Continuous mixers are used in massive construction such as dams, bridges, etc., which
involve the use of large masses of concrete and also required the continuous flow of concrete.
Batch mixer is most commonly used and consisting of a revolving drum with
blades or baffles inside it. In batch mixer, all the material of desired proportioned mix are fed
into the hopper of the revolving drum on being rotated at a certain speed mixes the material
with the aid of a series of blades providing inside, the resulting mix is finally discharged from the
drum and conveyed for used.
Transporting the concrete
Transporting the concrete mix is defined as the transferring of concrete from the mixing plant to
the construction site. Keep in mind that not all concrete is mixed on the actual construction site
and could require some significant travel. This is most common for ready mixed concrete. The
main objective in transporting concrete
is to ensure that the water cement ratio, slump or consistency, aircontent, homogeneity are
not modified from there intended states. The concrete is transported commonly by the steel
Placing and finishing of concrete
Mixing, transporting, and handling of concrete should be carefully coordinated with placing and
finishing operations. Concrete should not be deposited more rapidly than it can be spread,
struck off, consolidation, and bull floated. Concrete should be deposited continuously
as near as possible to its final position. In slab construction, placing should be started along the
perimeter at one end of the work with each batch placed against previously dispatched
concrete. Concrete should not be dumped in separate piles and then leveled
and worked together; nor should the concrete be deposited in large piles and moved
horizontally into final position.
In some types of construction, the concrete is placed in forms, and then consolidated by
temp. The consolidation
compacts fresh concrete to mold it within theforms and around embedded items and reinforc
ement and to eliminate stonepockets, honeycomb and entrapped air. It should not remove si
gnificant amount of intentionally entr- ained air.
Either internal or external is the most widely used method for consolidating concrete. When
concrete is vibrated, the internal friction betweenthe aggregate particles is
temporarily destroyed and the concrete behave like a liquid; it settles in the forms under
the action of gravity and the large entrapped air voids
rise more easily to the surface. Internal friction is re-established as soon as vibration stops.
Concrete that will be visible, such as slab like driveway, highway or patios often
need finishing. Concrete slabs can be finished in many ways, depending on the intended
service use. Options include various colors and textures, such as exposed aggregate or
a patterned stamped surface. Some surface may require only
strike off and screeding to proper contour and elevation, while for other surface a
broomed, floated, or troweled finish may be specified. In slab construction screeding or strike
off is the process of cutting off excess concrete to bring the top surface of the slab to proper
grade. A straight edge is
moved acrossthe concrete with a sawing motion and advanced forward a short distance with
Bull floating eliminates high and low spots and embeds large aggregate particles immediately
after strike off. This look like a long handled straight edge pulled across
the concrete. Joining is required to eliminate unsightly random cracks. Construction joints are
made with a groover or by inserting strips of plastic, wood, metal, or performed joints
material into the unhardened concrete. Saw cut joints can be made
after theconcrete is sufficiently hard or strong enough to prevent the reveling. Afterthe concret
e has been jointed it should be floated with a wood or metal handfloat or with
a finishing machine using float blades. This
embeds aggregateparticles just beneath the surface; removes slight imperfections, humps, a
nd voids; and compacts the mortar at the surface in preparation for addition finishing operations.
Where a smooth, hard, dense surface is desired, floating
shouldbe followed by steel troweling. Troweling should not be done on a Surface that has not
been floated; troweling after only bull floating is not an adequate finish procedure. A slip resistant
surface can be produced by brooming before the concrete has thoroughly hardened but it
should be sufficient hard to retain the scoring impression.
The following procedure is recommended for demarcation of a building.
For layout of a building baseline is marked on the ground either from centre
line of the road or from any permanent building nearby. This line helps to
mark out the front of a building. Side baseline is also marked with the help
of side structure or road or it can be marked with the help of first baseline
or boundary of the plot.
Fix temporary pegs at the centre line of walls/columns on both sides of
walls and columns in front and back side.
Fix peg at the centre line of walls/columns on both sides of wall and
columns in left and right side of front of building.
Check diagonals of the square or rectangle formed after fixing pegs.
Construct Burji or marking pillars with pegs at a distance of 1.5 meter to 2
meters and their top surface should be plastered.
Mark centre line on the top of Burjis with the help of thread (Soot) or with
the Thedolite in big projects and the diagonal and other dimension should
Level Burji on all corners of building and the top level is fixed at a proposed
Mark the foundation of walls/columns according to drawing on the ground
with the help of centerline marked on the Burji.
Mark foundation trenches on the ground with chalk powder.
Excavate the foundation of the walls /columns up to required level and the
excavation must be checked with the help of centre line and level burji to
avoid any complication later on.
Advantages of Layout with the help of Burjis
It saves time for measuring and setting of point again and again at the time
It increases the efficiency of mason and foreman for doing their jobs.
Accuracy can be checked at any time at any step.
If any mistake is found, it can be easily be rectified at early stage. It is very
difficult to rectify the mistake in later.
Cross check can be done by senior engineer in minimum time.
A qualitative work is maintained.
Disadvantages for doing the work without layout
At some sites of work the contractor brings steel pieces, erects the same on the ground and
start the work of excavation. In due course these steel pieces are just discarded. Thus no
proper reference point is available while doing further jobs.
It involves extra time for measuring the offset again and again.
Accuracy can not be checked at early stage and it will be very difficult to rectify the
same in later stage.
It involves wastage of time and money while doing rectification. This also leads to bad
quality of work.
Materials used during Setting up of Layout
1. Leveling Instrument
3. Long Nails
5. Right Angle(Guniya)
6. Steel Tape
7. Thin Cotton Thread
10. Screen Sand
11. Lime Powder
Method Statement for Columns
To provide true line & position of columns/walls we shall provide starter/kicker for each
column & shear walls, column wall position shall be marked on raft/slab top for providing
Starters shall be made of 100 mm x 50 mm channel section.
Concreting of starter will proceed after checking of layout with necessary clearance from
thick film coated ply with backing angles at the
edges and flat at the center about 300C/C both ways. The lift for columns will be of 2.4
m height in general but however this may vary depending on requirement.
Vertical reinforcement bars and Stirrups shall be provided as per Drawings & BBS
Checked by clients and suitably tied with binding wire.
The reinforcement bars shall be held in position rigidly from sway by suitable scaffolding
Proper cover to the reinforcement shall be ensured by providing adequate numbers of
concrete cover blocks.
Column shutters shall be erected true to line and plumb and adequate supports shall be
provided to keep the same in position during & after concreting.
Proper staged platform will be provided for concreting.
Concrete pour card as per approved format shall be made and maintained for each pour
duly signed by client & Simplex.
Columns shall be poured in layers of 300 mm thick and each layer shall be vibrated
Adequate numbers of manpower in terms of skilled and unskilled shall be made available
to receive the concrete.
Proper lighting arrangements shall be made for night works.
Construction and expansion joints shall be provided and treated as per
Any loose deposited concrete afterwards shall be removed & disposed off.
Hessian cloth shall be wrapped around the column/wall for keeping the element wet for
minimum of 14 days.
De-shuttering shall be done after 12 hours/24 hours after casting of individual pours as
per Technical requirements and codal provisions.
FORMWORK ‘Temporary Supporting Structures’ are those structures,
which are temporarily required in building construction either for supporting the
laying of concrete till it gets matured, such as formwork or forms or shuttering
. As fresh concrete is in a plastic state, when it is placed for construction purposes,
so it becomes necessary to provide some temporary structure to confine and
support the concrete, till it gains sufficient strength for self-supporting. The
temporary structure is known as Formwork or shuttering.
Conventional Shuttering has been used at skyline site
Fig. 1.9– Formwork and Shuttering provided at the skyline site
Requirement of the formwork
Good forms for concrete structure should satisfy the following requirements; (1) It
should be strong enough to resist the pressure or the weight of the fresh concrete
and the superimposed loads due to equipment, men etc. This requires careful
design of formwork, because the consideration of overloads will affects
the economy whereas of under loads may cause failure of the forms work.(2) It
should be rigid enough to retain the shape without undue deformation.(3) It must
be made or constructed so light that it does not allow the cement paste to
leak through the joints.(4) The inside surface of the formwork should be smooth
so as to give good appearance to the resulting concrete surface. To achieve this,
the inside surface of formwork is usually applied with crude oil or soft soap
solution. This also facilitates the removal of the formwork.(5) The entire formwork
should be so made that it can be removed easily without causing the least injury
to the surface or edges of the concrete.(6) It should be made economical by
reducing the cost through proper design, construction and use of formwork.
Removal of the formwork
The period for which forms should be left in place depends upon the temperature
of air, the shape and position of structural member (i.e. horizontal vertical or
inclined), the nature of the loads likely to come and the character of the cement
and cement paste. Generally, the use of rapid hardening cement, higher
temperatures, low water cement ratio and lighter loads, will permit early removal
of formwork. Under normal conditions where temperature is above20ºC and
ordinary cement is use, forms may be removed after the expiry of the period given
below: Particulars of the structural period of member removing of formwork (a)
Vertical slides of slabs, beams 24 to 48 hours columns and wall(b) Slabs (props
or vertical supporting 3 days member left under)(c) Beams soffits (props left
under) 7 days(d) Bottom of slabs up to a span 7 days of 4.5 m.(e) Bottom of slabs
above 4.5 m 14 days span, bottom of the beams up to 6 m span, and bottom of
arch ribs up to 6 m span(f) Bottom of beams over 6 m span 21 days and bottom
of arch ribs over 6 m span.
RCC SLAB & BEAMS CASTING – WORK PROCEDURE
Materials and Machinery used
Chute and CI Pipes
Scope of the work
Marking the slab
Placing the reinforcement
Form work for slab
Placing the concrete
It shall be as per BBS prepared according to approved drawing. The R/F shifting
and binding shall be started as soon as shuttering is completed. R/F binding shall
continue as formwork and shuttering work is progresses.
The construction joint shall be pre decided and fixed prior to start of the
concreting. It is planned to have two construction joints for main building as
decided. In case of major break down of the Batching plant, the additional
Construction joint may be left. The location of the construction joint shall be at the
one-third span. Construction joint shall be straight and have profile of ‘L’shape so
that successive layer of concrete shall be perfectly bonded with previous laid
Preparation of construction joint shall include roughening, removing all laitance
adhering to the joint and application of thick slurry before start of the new concrete.
Production and placement of concrete.
Stock of material shall be sufficient to start the concrete. It shall be ensured by
stores/purchase dept that concreting is not stopped on account of materials.
All plant and machinery are checked and made in working conditions.
Concrete of grade M-25 shall be produced from our batching plant and directly
pumped to the location of concrete placement through the pipeline. The pouring
sequence shall be from grid A towards construction joint. Since the grade of
concrete for column is M-40 and surrounding concrete is M-25, sufficient offset
around column shall be casted with M-40.The offset dimensions shall be provided
Proper walkways/platforms shall be arranged so that the supports of the pipeline
and manpower are not directly stand on reinforcement.
Sufficient carpenters along with supervisor shall inspect the behavior of supports
below the slab during the casting. Extra Props shall be stocked below slab to
provide additional supports in case of any failure of supports.
The curing shall be started immediately after thumb set of the concrete laid.
Hessian clothe /Plastic shall be covered over the set concrete to reduce moisture
evaporation from the concrete during hardening and thus to minimize shrinkage
crazy cracks. These cracks are inheriting property of the concrete specially
appears during casting of flat surfaces.
Final curing shall be done by ponding and stacking water for minimum period of
Staircase is constructed in the same way as columns and slabs.With the help of
drawings we will make formwork and reinforcement is done. After that concreting
is done. Followed by curing and DE shuttering
Bricks can be of two types. These are:
1) Traditional Bricks-The dimension if traditional bricks vary from 21 cm to 25cm
in length,10 to 13 cm in width and 7.5 cm in height in different parts of country
.The commonly adopted normal size of traditional brick is 23 * 11.5*7.5 cm with a
view to achieve uniformity in size of bricks all over country.
2) Modular Bricks– Indian standard institution has established a standard size of
bricks such a brick is known as a modular brick. The normal size of brick is taken
as 20*10*10 cm whereas its actual dimensions are 19*9*9 cm masonry with
modular bricks workout to be cheaper there is saving in the consumption of bricks,
mortar and labour as compared with masonry with traditional bricks.
STRENGTH OF BRICK MASONRY
The permissible compressive stress in brick masonry depends upon the following
1. Type and strength of brick.
2. Mix of motor.
3. Size and shape of masonry construction.
. Fly ash bricks exhibit almostsimilar mechanical properties as brunt clay bricks. Exposed
brickwork with precise pointing is possible if the shapes are perfect.
Bricks used for the project are of Class A , size 230mm x 115mm x 75mm.
Layout of the Floor Partitions- Tower F 19th Floor Layout
Fig. 1.10– Layout for Partition Wall
Masonry Wall Construction
Masonry walls are the most durable part of any building or structure. They provide
strength,, durability to the structure and also helps to control indoor and outdoor
temperature. It separates a building from outside world.
Masonry is the word used for construction with mortar as a binding material with
individual units of bricks, stones, marbles, granites, concrete blocks, tiles etc.
Mortar is a mixture of binding material with sand. Binding materials can be
cement, lime, soil or any other.
The durability and strength of masonry wall construction depends on the type and
quality of material used and workmanship.
Mortar Ratio used for 4 Inches wall is 1:4 and for 9 Inches wall is 1:6.
Fig. 1.11– Masonry Wall Construction
Under the guidance of Mr. Kapil Bhardwaj (Sr. Manager - Projects) as a mentor, we have got
opportunity to understand the technical and managerial aspect of residential housing project.
The main aim of studies within this project was to investigate how a structure is constructed within
its desired properties. We got to know about the basic & advanced techniques of building
construction as well as saw the challenges which a civil engineer have to face during construction
i.e. labor problems, cost management, environmental challenges etc. We cleared our many doubts
regarding building construction. Overall it must be said that the construction methods and quality
control on a residential project needs a very good coordination and large quantities of man power,
equipment and funds. During the period of 45 days all the site staff helped us a lot to provide all the
information about any query. So we are grateful to Universal Buildwell Pvt. Ltd for giving us the
opportunity to learn and grow.
A residential area is a land use in which housing predominates, as opposed
to industrial and commercial areas. Housing may vary significantly between, and through,
residential areas. These include single-family housing, multi-family residential, or mobile
homes. Zoning for residential use may permit some services or work opportunities or may totally
exclude business and industry. It may permit high density land use or only permit low density uses.
This report mainly concerns with the construction of residential building. I have done training at
Skyline engineering contracts (India) pvt. Ltd.
There were seven towers namely A, B, C, D, E, F & G.
I was assigned the B&B’ tower. But my trainer Atul sir went home on a vacation so I was told to
go to every tower where ever I want and can learn from any engineer of any tower.
Foramens also did help me a lot in gaining practical knowledge. Every tower was erected up to
19- 20 floors.on my arrival.
I was on the 19 th floor and I saw how the column was erected. After that shuttering for slab and
beams was used .
I also saw the shuttering of stair cases used in the buildings . after that concreting pouring of
concrete in the buildings. Brickwork was also done along with the construction.
Building construction by B.C. PUNAMIA .
Instructions from ATUL PANT sir & ER. SAKTI GUPTA sir .