Mini CNC (Router Machine)

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  • MANUFACTURING ENG. & PRODUCTION TECH. DEPARTMENT

    MINI CNC MACHINE

    (3 AXIS)

    Presented By:

    Amir Tawfic Dawa

    Mohamed Ahmed Abo yadak

    Ahmed Mohamed Ibrahem

    Mahmoud Abd El Wahab

    Ramy Abd El Aziz

    Waleed Fathy Hamed

    Supervised By:

    Prof. Dr. Abd El Naser Zayed

    July 2012

    MODERN ACADEMY FOR ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

  • Table of Contents

    CHAPTER (1)

    INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 1

    1.1 OVERVIEW ................................................................................................ 1

    1.2 CNC SYSTEM ELEMENTS ...................................................................... 1

    1.3 COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL (CNC) ...................................... 2

    1.4 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS FOR ROUTER ......................................... 2

    1.5 CAD / CAM ................................................................................................ 2

    1.6 COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING ............................................. 3

    1.7 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN TYPES ..................................................... 4

    1.8 MACHINING PROCESS ........................................................................... 5

    1.8.1 Roughing .......................................................................................... 5

    1.8.2 Semi-Finishing ................................................................................. 5

    1.8.3 Finishing ........................................................................................... 6

    1.8.4 Contour Milling ................................................................................ 6

    1.9 ADVANTAGES OF CNC .......................................................................... 6

    1.10 LIMITATIONS OF CNC .......................................................................... 7

    CHAPTER(2)

    DESIGN .......................................................................................................... 8

    2.1 DETAIL DRAWING ........................................................................................... 8

    2.2 SELECTION OF SPINDLE ............................................................................. 34

    2.2.1 Select work piece and tool type ........................................................... 34

    2.2.2 Calculate ( .................................................................................... 34

    2.2.3 Calculate (N) ........................................................................................... 34

    2.2.4 Calculate machine power ...................................................................... 34

    2.2.5 Calculate material removal rate ........................................................... 35

  • 2.2.6 Calculate efficiency factor (E) for m/c tool ....................................... 35

    2.2.7 Calculate drive motor power ................................................................ 35

    2.2.8 Calculate drive motor torque ................................................................ 35

    2.3 ACTING FORCES : .......................................................................................... 37

    2.4 DESIGN OF POWER SCREW ....................................................................... 37

    2.4.1 TYPES OF POWER SCREW.............................................................. 37

    2.5 CALCULATION OF POWER SCREW: ...................................................... 40

    2.6 SELECTION OF BEARINGS ......................................................................... 45

    2.6.1 PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION ........................................................ 45

    2.6.2 MOTIONS ............................................................................................... 46

    2.6.3 FRICTION ............................................................................................... 46

    2.6.4 LOADS..................................................................................................... 46

    2.6.5 SPEEDS ................................................................................................... 47

    2.6.6 TYPES OF BEARING .......................................................................... 47

    2.6.7 Calculation of Bearing ........................................................................... 48

    2.7 DESIGN OF GUIDE WAY ............................................................................... 54

    2.7.1 Linear Motion ......................................................................................... 54

    2.7.2 Supporting Machine Components ....................................................... 54

    2.7.3 Providing Precise Linear Motion......................................................... 54

    2.7.4 Supporting Secondary Loads ............................................................... 54

    2.7.5 Categories of Linear Motion systems ................................................. 56

    2.7.6 Round rail bearings system................................................................... 57

    2.7.7 Selection option ...................................................................................... 58

    2.7.8 Linear bearing accuracy ........................................................................ 59

    2.7.9 Calculation of guide way ...................................................................... 60

    CHAPTER(3)

    ASSEMBLY ................................................................................................... 78

  • CHAPTER(4)

    CONTROL SYSTEM ................................................................................... 91

    4.1 DEFINITION ............................................................................................ 91

    4.2 CONROL PARTS ..................................................................................... 91

    4.2.1 Controller ....................................................................................... 92

    4.2.1.1 Types of Controller (Software) can be used ............................ 92

    4.2.1.2 Features of Mach3 Software .................................................... 92

    4.2.1.3 Configuration of Software ....................................................... 93

    4.2.1.4 Determined Steps per Unit Length .......................................... 97

    4.2.2 Power Supply ................................................................................. 99

    4.2.3 Breakout Board Or Interface ......................................................... 99

    4.2.3.1 Interface features ................................................................... 100

    4.2.3.2 Parallel port ............................................................................ 100

    4.2.3.3 Input and output ports ............................................................ 101

    4.2.4 Motors driver ............................................................................... 101

    4.2.4.1 Type of common driver circuits, ........................................... 101

    4.2.4.2 Advantages of H-bridge and l297 circuit .............................. 102

    4.2.4.3 Driver Circuit ......................................................................... 103

    4.2.4.4 Driver PCB ............................................................................ 104

    4.2.4.5 Driver Picture ......................................................................... 104

    4.2.4.6 Machine Circuits Box ............................................................ 106

    4.2.5 Motors .......................................................................................... 106

    4.2.5.1 Motors type ............................................................................ 107

    4.2.5.2 Open Loop Versus Closed Loop ........................................... 108

    4.2.5.3 Stepper Motors Advantages And Disadvantages .................. 109

    4.2.6 Switches ....................................................................................... 110

  • CHAPTER(5)

    EXPERIMENTAL WORK AND VERIFICATION ............................... 111

    5.1. MACHINING PARTS ............................................................................ 111

    5.1.1. First Sample (Mdf) ...................................................................... 111

    5.1.1.3. Machined Part ........................................................................... 112

    5.1.1.4. G-Codes For First Sample ........................................................ 112

    5.1.2. The Second Sample (MDF) ................................................................. 119

    5.1.3. The Third Sample (From Aluminum) ................................................. 135

    5.2. CONCLUSION ....................................................................................... 143

    REFERENCES ............................................................................................. 144

    Appendix ...................................................................................................... 145

  • CHAPTER (1)

    INTRODUCTION

  • MINI CNC MACHINE (3-AXIS) CH.1

    1

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 OVERVIEW

    The goal of this project to constrain, design, manufacturing, assemble for min

    CNC milling machine tool and des