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PRESENTED BY: ROUNAK GOYANKA SEMINAR ON: NANOWIRE BATTERY GUIDED BY: PROF S.B.BODKHE RAMDEOBABA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT

Nanowire battery

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PRESENTED BY: ROUNAK GOYANKASeminar on: NANOWIRE BATTERYGUIDED BY: PROF S.B.BODKHE

RAMDEOBABA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT

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CONTENTSPrimary vs secondary batteriesStandard modern batteriesBattery typesAdvantages & Disadvantages of Li-ion Silicon nanowireAdvantageDisadvantageFuture scopeReferences

Primary vs. SecondaryBatteriesPrimary batteries are disposable because their electrochemical reaction cannot be reversed.Secondary batteries are rechargeable, because their electrochemical reaction can be reversed by applying a certain voltage to the battery in the opposite direction of the discharge.

Standard Modern BatteriesZinc-Carbon: used in all inexpensive AA, C and D dry-cell batteries. The electrodes are zinc and carbon, with an acidic paste between them that serves as the electrolyte. (disposable)Alkaline: used in common Duracell and Energizer batteries, the electrodes are zinc and manganese-oxide, with an alkaline electrolyte. (disposable)Lead-Acid: used in cars, the electrodes are lead and lead-oxide, with an acidic electrolyte. (rechargeable)

Battery typesNICKEL-CADMIUM(NiCd)NICKEL-METAL HYDRIDE(NiMH)LITHIUM-ION(Li-ion)RECHARGEABLERECHARGEABLERECHARGEABLEMEMORY EFFECTNO MEMORY EFFECTNO MEMORY EFFECT

Lithium -Ion Battery DevelopmentIn the 1970s, Lithium metal was used but its instability rendered it unsafe and impractical. Lithium-cobalt oxide and graphite are now used as the lithium-Ion-moving electrodes.The Lithium-Ion battery has a slightly lower energy density than Lithium metal, but is much safer. Introduced by Sony in 1991.

Advantages of Using Li-Ion BatteriesPOWER High energy density means greater power in a smaller package.160% greater than NiMH 220% greater than NiCdHIGHER VOLTAGE a strong current allows it to power complex mechanical devices. LONG SHELF-LIFE only 5% discharge loss per month.10% for NiMH, 20% for NiCd

Disadvantages of Li-IonEXPENSIVE -- 40% more than NiCd.DELICATE -- battery temp must be monitored from within (which raises the price), and sealed particularly well.REGULATIONS -- when shipping Li-Ion batteries in bulk (which also raises the price). Class 9 miscellaneous hazardous materialUN Manual of Tests and Criteria (III, 38.3)

Nano Science and Technology1 sheet of paper = 100,000 nanometersThe attempt to manufacture and control objects at the atomic and molecular level (i.e. 100 nanometers or smaller).1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter (10-9)

Silicon: an optimal anode materialGraphite energy density: 372 mA h/g

C6 LiC6

Silicon energy density: 4200 mA h/g Si Li4.4Si

Silicon NW AnodeStructurally stable after many cycles10 x energy density of current anodesSilicon film gets pulverized from volume changes. Si NW can accommodate volume change.

Experimental TechniqueNW growth on stainless steel by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) techniqueCrystalline SiCore-shell (core = crystalline Si, shell = amorphous Si)Test current-voltage characteristics over many charge/discharge cycles using cyclic voltammetry

CSi NW onStainless steelLi metal

Electrolyte

V

Experimental Results

Chan et. al., Nature Nanotech, 2007Charge and discharge capacity per cycle13

Experimental Results

Chan et. al., Nature Nanotech, 2007Charge and discharge capacity per cycleDramatic (~10x) improvement in charging capacity over graphite!14

Experimental Results

Chan et. al., Nature Nanotech, 2007Charge and discharge capacity per cycle

No decrease in capacity beyond first charge cycle!15

Experimental Results

Chan et. al., Nature Nanotech, 2007Study of reaction dynamics:Near capacity charging at high reaction rates16

Experimental Results

Chan et. al., Nature Nanotech, 2007Study of reaction dynamics:Near capacity charging at high reaction ratesEven one hour cycle time is much better than a fully charged graphite anode!Graphite17

Technological ComparisonTechnologyPower densityEnergy densityLifetimeEfficiencyFuel cellsLow/moderateHighLow/moderateModerateSupercapacitorsVery highLowHighHighNanogeneratorsVery lowUnlimitedUnknownLowLi-ion w/ graphiteModerateModerateModerateHighLi-ion w/ Si NWModerateHighUnder investigationHigh

Fuel Cells:

Smithsonian Institution, 200818

Technological ComparisonSupercapacitors:Maxwell Technologies, 2009

19TechnologyPower densityEnergy densityLifetimeEfficiencyFuel cellsLow/moderateHighLow/moderateModerateSupercapacitorsVery highLowHighHighNanogeneratorsVery lowUnlimitedUnknownLowLi-ion w/ graphiteModerateModerateModerateHighLi-ion w/ Si NWModerateHighUnder investigationHigh

Technological ComparisonPiezoelectric nanogenerators:Wang, ZL, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2008

20TechnologyPower densityEnergy densityLifetimeEfficiencyFuel cellsLow/moderateHighLow/moderateModerateSupercapacitorsVery highLowHighHighNanogeneratorsVery lowUnlimitedUnknownLowLi-ion w/ graphiteModerateModerateModerateHighLi-ion w/ Si NWModerateHighUnder investigationHigh

Technological ComparisonEnergy and power densityOnly fuel cells and batteries can be primary power supplyAmong those, Si NW batteries are optimalLifetime and efficiencyBatteries last about as long as typical electronic componentsEnergy efficiency of electrochemical devices is generally high

21TechnologyPower densityEnergy densityLifetimeEfficiencyFuel cellsLow/moderateHighLow/moderateModerateSupercapacitorsVery highLowHighHighNanogeneratorsVery lowUnlimitedUnknownLowLi-ion w/ graphiteModerateModerateModerateHighLi-ion w/ Si NWModerateHighUnder investigationHigh

Economics of Nanowire BatteriesSilicon is abundant and cheapLeverage extensive silicon production infrastructureDont need high purity (expensive) SiNanowire growth substrate is also current collectorLeads to simpler/easier battery design/manufacture (one step synthesis)Nanowire growth is mature and scalable techniqueJ.-G. Zhang et al., Large-Scale Production of Si-Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Applications (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)9 sq. mi. factory = batteries for 100,000 cars/day

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Lifetime IssuesInitial capacity loss after first cycle (17%)Cause still unknown?Capacity stable at ~3500 Ah/kg for 20 cyclesCant yet maintain theoretical 4200 Ah/kgCrystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Nanowires (2009)Energy Density: ~1000 Ah/kg (3x)90% retention, 100 cyclesPower Density: ~6800 A/kg (20x)

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Why Are Nanowires Batteries Not Being Implemented?Nanowire are not being heavily manufactured because they are still in the development stage and are only produced in the laboratory.Until production has been streamlined, made easier and faster, they will not be heavily manufactured for commercial purposes.

AdvantagesThe small NW diameter allows for better accommodation of the large volume changes without the initiation of fracture that can occur in bulk or micron-sized materials.NWs have direct 1D electronic pathways allowing for efficient charge transport.In nanowire electrodes the carriers can move efficiently down the length of each wire.Nanowires can be grown directly on the metallic current collector.Protects from explosions.High storage capacity(4200mAh).

DisadvantageNWs must be assembled into a composite containing conducting carbon and binders to maintain good electronic conduction throughout.It is expensive.Only anodes are manufactured by nanowires.

Future scopeIn future, ordinary batteries will be replaced by Nanowire based batteries completely.By the use of Nanowire batteries in future, we can have devices having high battery life.By invention of some new mechanism and technology , we can get Nanowire batteries have more than 10times the ordinary battery.

References

Porous Doped Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Anode with Long Cycle Life Mingyuan Ge, Jiepeng Rong, Xin Fang, and Chongwu ZhouC. K. Chan, R. Huggins, Y. Cui and co-workers Nature Nanotechnology 3, 31 (2008)Nanowire Batteries for Next Generation Electronics Candace K. Chan, Stephen T. Connor, Yuan Yang, Ching-Mei Hsu, Robert A. Huggins, and Yi CuiElectrochemical Nanowire Devices for Energy Storage Liqiang Mai, Qiulong Wei, Xiaocong Tian, Yunlong Zhao, and Qinyou An IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 13, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology Toronto, Canada, August 18-21, 2014 High-Rate Lithium-ion Battery Anodes Based on Silicon-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers Steven A. Klankowski, Gaind P. Pandey, Brett A. Cruden, Jianwei Liu, Judy Wu, Ronald A. Rojeski and Jun Li, Member, IEEE

THANK YOUANY QUESTIONS?