Baroque period part 3

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  1. 1. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
    • One of the greatest musicians to ever live
    • Bach was such a great organist that he could play with his feet better than some organists could play with their hands
    • In 1720 his wife died leaving him with 4 young children
  2. 2. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
    • He had 16 more children by his new wife
    • Several of his children became well known composers themselves:
      • Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, Carl Philip Emmanuel Bach, and Johann Christian Bach all made significant contributions to the world of music.
  3. 3. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
    • At 36 Bach got the last job of his life at theSt. Thomas Church in Leipzig
    • While there he wrote a differentcantata(an extended composition for chorus, orchestra, and soloist) for each Sunday and holiday for 4 years
    • At least 295 that we know of today (195 of them have survived).
  4. 4. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
    • Listen to:
    • Prelude in C Minorfrom The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I (about 1722)
    • This is a piece from a book of preludes and fugues composed in all 24 keys
      • Prelude in C Minoris a study in perpetual motion
      • This motion grows out of repeated patterns of eight rapid notes in both the right and left hand
      • Toward the end of the prelude, the rhythmic drive is interrupted by a slow ornamental passage in the style of improvisation,The Preludesoon returns to rapid running notes and concludes with a bright C major harmony.
  5. 5. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
    • Listen to:
    • Fugue in C Minor
    • The Fugue in C Minor is lighter in mood than Bach s Organ Fugue in G Minor ( Little Fugue ) studied earlier
    • The subject grows out of a decisive five-note fragment-two short notes followed by three longer ones
    • In the opening section of the fugue, each of the three voices in turn-alto, soprano, bass-states the subject, which is introduced without accompaniment
  6. 6. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
    • Fugue in C Minor continued
    • Starting with its second appearance, the subject is accompanied by a counter-subject that begins with a rapid descending scale
    • The fugue subject is stated eight times: seven times in minor and once in major
    • The fugue subject is stated eight times: seven times in minor and once in major
  7. 7. Johann Sebastian Bach
    • Fugue in C Minor continued
    • Transitional episodes, which have a more continuous flow of rapid notes, precede several statements of the subject
    • In most of these episodes, the counter-subject s rapid scale accompanies the subjects opening fragment
    • The subject in the soprano is now accompanied by a pedal point- a low sustained octave in the bass
    • Like it s Prelude, the Fugue in C Minor ends with a bright C major harmony.
  8. 8. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
    • Listen to:
    • BrandenburgConcerto No. 5 in D Major (about 1721)
      • Second Movement: Affettuoso (affectionately, tenderly)
      • The Affettuoso is slow, quiet, and in a minor key
      • It uses only three solo instruments and a cello which duplicates the bass line (left hand of the harpsichord)
      • The movement is based on a repeated alternation between a main theme and episodes
  9. 9. BrandenburgConcerto No. 5 in D Major (about 1721)
    • Listen to:
    • Third Movement: Allegro
      • The concluding Allegro is dancelike in character
      • It is in ABA form; the A sections are in major, and the B section is in minor
  10. 10. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
    • Listen to:
    • Suite No. 3 in D Major (1729-1731)
      • Fourth Movement: Bouree
    • Is an even livelier dance in duple meter
    • It is the shortest movement of the suite.It is in AABB form
    • Section A uses the full orchestra, including trumpets and timpani
    • Section B is three times longer than A and alternates loud tutti passages with softer passages for strings and oboes
  11. 11. Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die stimme ( Awake, a Voice Is Calling Us ; 1731)
    • Listen to:
    • Last Movement
      • Bach based this cantata on the chorale tune Wachet auf, because its text was inspired by the Gospel for this particular Sunday
      • There are nine melodic phrases, of which the first three (making up the A section) are repeated immediately
      • The last phrase of the A section reappears at the end of the B section and beautifully rounds off the chorale melody.
  12. 12. Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die stimme ( Awake, a Voice Is Calling Us ; 1731)
    • Listen to:
    • First Movement: Chorus and Orchestra
      • The opening movement is scored for chorus and small orchestra
      • There are three layers of sound: the chorale phrases in long notes in the soprano, the imitative dialogue in shorter note values in the three lower voices; and the ever busy orchestra playing along underneath in even shorter tones
      • The chorale tune in the soprano is presented not as a continuous whole but rather phrase by phrase
      • Once during the movement, the three lower voice become emancipated from the soprano and jubilantly sing a melody in rapid notes onAlleluja .
  13. 13. Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die stimme ( Awake, a Voice Is Calling Us ; 1731)
    • Listen to:
    • Fourth Movement: Tenor Chorale
      • The fourth movement is scored for tenors; violins and violas in unison, and basso continuo
      • The chorale tune returns in this movement, the most popular of the cantata
      • The chorale tune moves in faster rhythmic values than it did in the opening movement, but here, too, it is broken into component phrases linked by an instrumental melody
  14. 14. George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)
    • A master of Italian opera and English oratorio, he was born in halle, Germany one month before J.S. Bach
    • Handel was not from a musical family, but his father finally recognized his talent and let him take organ lessons
    • His first opera was produced when he was 21
  15. 15. George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)
    • Moved to England and began writing operas
      • Was very successful for a time, but tastes changed so he began to writeoratorios
    • An oratorio is a piece for solo singers, chorus, and orchestra set to a biblical text
    • His most famous was theMessiah
      • It was so popular that gentlemen were told to come without swords and ladies without hoops in order to make more room for people to hear it
  16. 16. George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)
    • Handel s music is as important as Bachs
    • He wrote a great deal of instrumental music, but the core of his works are Italian operas and English oratorios
  17. 17. Messiah
    • Listen to:
    • Sinfonia for Strings and Basso Continuo (French Overture) Grave; Allegro moverato (moderate allegro)
      • Opens with a French overture in minor
      • A slow section is followed by a faster one
      • A lively subject is passed from higher instruments to lower ones
      • Near the end of the movement is a feature typical to Handel: energetic orchestral motion is suddenly broken off by a brief pause that ushers in a closing cadence of slow chords.
  18. 18. Messiah
    • Listen to:
    • Comfort Ye, My People
      • The vocal line is something between a recitative and an aria
      • More lyrical than one, less elaborate than the other
      • This type of melodic accompaniment is called anarioso .
  19. 19. Messiah
    • Listen to:
    • Ev ry Valley Shall Be Exaulted
      • Aria for tenor, strings, and basso continuo Andante
      • It opens and closes with a string ritornello
      • It uses striking word painting which is characteristic of baroque music
  20. 20. Messiah
    • Listen to:
    • For Unto Us A Child Is Born
      • Chorus, strings, basso continuo
        • This is Handel s most joyful music
        • The texture is light, with one or two voices singing at a time
        • He sets two contrasting ideas against each other
        • He keeps the dynamics subdued until the striking chordal outburst onWonder