Chapter 19 Baroque Art in the Netherlands

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Text of Chapter 19 Baroque Art in the Netherlands

The Age of the Baroque

The NetherlandsMap of Mid-seventeenth century Europe with emphasis on the Netherlands

The NetherlandsSeventeenth century Netherlands split in twoNorthern Netherlands (known today as the Netherlands)Often defined by dominant province (Holland)Gains independence from Spain, Reformed Church dominates BUT there is religious tolerance (Protestants, Catholics, and Jews)Private patrons promote competition amongst artists for work and specialization in new genresSouthern Netherlands (modern-day Belgium and a small part of France)Often defined by dominant province (Flanders)Remains Catholic under Spanish ruleArtists rely on Church and Spanish regents for commissionsAlthough there are differences, interaction between two areas does continue promoting social and cultural exchangeFlemish BaroqueDuring the battle between the Catholic Church and Protestant reformers, Flanders (present-day Belgium) remained CatholicTrue of 1609 led to need for churches to be rebuilt and redecoratedArt dominated by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)Had large workshopMost early 17th century Flemish artists apprentice in his workshopPeter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Example: Rubens, influenced by Caravaggio, became well-known for his Counter-Reformation art and was amongst the most sought after artists of his timeStyle combines sculptural quality of Michelangelos figures with painterliness and colors of the Venetian artists

Peter Paul Rubens, The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus, 1617. Oil on canvas, 73x 610. Alte Pinkothek, Munich.Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Example:Rubens worked in multiple media including sculpture, architecture, paint, costume, and booksSubjects primarily religious or politicalPremiere portrait artistWedding portraitCut down from original

Peter Paul Rubens, Marchesa Brigida Spinola Doria, 1606. Oil on canvas, 5 x 3 2 7/8. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.1.

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Example:Helps to internationalize Baroque styleWell traveled and knowledgeable artist with diplomatic tiesWorks epitomize Baroque drama, actionKnown for movement, color, and sensualityTrained with Tobias Verhaeght (1561-1631), AntwerpBecomes a Master (1598) and finds personal style after trip to Italy

Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610-1611. Center panel of triptych, 151 x 11 9 5/8. Antwerp Cathedral, Belguim. Fig. 19.2.Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610-1611. Center panel of triptych, 151 x 11 9 5/8. (Originally 35 high.) Antwerp Cathedral, Belguim.

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Example:Commission Church of Saint Walburga (no longer extant)Shows Italian knowledge and influence with ability to combine with Netherlandish traditions (realism)Detail of leavesSoldiers armorHair on dogDynamic designDestabilization of Renaissance triangle helps invite viewer, allows us to participate

Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610-1611. Center panel of triptych, 151 x 11 9 5/8. Antwerp Cathedral, Belguim. Fig. 19.2.Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Example:InfluencesLighting suggests CaravaggioRubenesque figures reminiscent of Hellenistic sculpture and Michelangelo from study of eachColor and glow show Titian

Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610-1611. Center panel of triptych, 151 x 11 9 5/8. Antwerp Cathedral, Belguim. Fig. 19.2.

Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610-1611. Center panel of triptych, 151 x 11 9 5/8. Antwerp Cathedral, Belguim. Fig. 19.2.

Titian, Madonna with Members of the Pesaro Family, 1526. Oil on canvas, 16 x 810. Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari. Venice. Fig. 15.14.Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)Example:From Marie deMedici Cycle21 paintings, 13 highVenerates French QueenCombines historical event with allegoryfame FrancePeter Paul Rubens, Marie de Medici, Queen of France, Landing in Marseilles (3 Novemebr 1600), 1622-1625. Oil on canvas, 12 11 x 97. Muse du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 19.3.

Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641)Example:Rubens most valued assistantDevelops mature style after Italy tripExcels as portrait artistRubens and Titian reference pointsUntraditional royal portraitTrees and animals bow to him

Anthony van Dyck, Portrait of Charles I Hunting, c. 1635. Oil on canvas, 811 x 6 11 . Muse du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 19.4

Dutch BaroqueNorthern Europe, now called Dutch Republic (present-day Holland) accepted the Protestant Reformation and became safe haven for many of the Catholic Churchs most ardent criticsThis dictates the subject matter of their work; there is not an overabundance of religious paintings produced by Dutch Baroque paintersStill-Life, genre scenes, portraits, and landscapes dominate their canvasesAmsterdam, Haarlem, Utrecht, Leiden, and Delft all centers of artistic activitySociety of merchants, farmers, and seafarers promotes economic prosperityTrade with East Asia (China, Japan, and Indonesia) and the Americas results in cultural exchangeTypes of Painting (popular in the Dutch Republic)Landscapesscenes in which the subject matter was dominated by the surrounding natural worldMarine painting emerged as a 'type' of still-lifeChurch painting - scenes of interior sacred spacesStill-lives (specialization was necessary due to increasing demand for these!)flower paintingvanitas (also referred to as memento mori)fowl and other game animalsbreakfast piecesPortraits of notable individualsmerchantscommemorative portraits (marriages, of general documentary nature, prestige, etc.)group portraits (cloth merchant's guild, physician's guild, militia companies, etc.)Genre scenes (scenes of everyday life)many of these paintings were executed on a rather small scale.major patron behind the artists was no longer the church, a very interesting phenomenon emerged - the increasing importance of the middle class patron and art collector.Frans Hals (c. 1585-1666)Example:Haarlem artist, born AntwerpMasters art marketDouble portrait, wedding?Combination of genre with formal portraitureWealthy coupleHe is a diplomat, cartographer, and fur traderOff-centeredness contributes to spontaneityGestures and posture of each paints a portrait of a couple in love Frans Hals, Married Couple in a Garden Portrait of Isaac Massa and Beatrix van der Laen, c. 1622. Oil on canvas, 55 x 65 . Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Fig. 19.7.

Frans Hals (c. 1585-1666)Example:Represents mature stylePossible allegory of Taste5 sense popular theme 17th centuryRubens vigor with Caravaggios dramatic momentGesture, posture convey spontaneityPainting style-quick brushstrokes adds to naturalness and impulsiveness of momentGolden Age of Dutch BaroqueFrans Hals, The Jolly Topper, c. 1628-1630. Oil on canvas, 31 7/8 x 26 . Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Fig. 19.8.

Judith Leyster (1609-1660)Example:Hals most noteworthy followerWorks once misattributed to HalsSubjects-candlelight scenes, relationships between men and women, portraits, still lifes, and genre

Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, c. 1633. Oil on canvas, 29 3/8 x 25 3/8. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.9.

Judith Leyster (1609-1660)Example:Self-portrait shows skill as portraitist and genre painterPossible master work for entry to St. Lukes Guild, c. 1633Double painting of sortsAdvertises profession and skill while maintaining femininity

Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, c. 1633. Oil on canvas, 29 3/8 x 25 3/8. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.9.

Constructing Female Identity in the Baroque Artemisia Gentileschi, Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting (La Pittura), 1638/9. Oil on canvas, 38 x 29. Royal Collection, Kensington Palace, London

Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, c. 1633. Oil on canvas, 29 3/8 x 25 3/8. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.9.19Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)Example:Influenced by Caravaggio through Utrecht SchoolEqually talented in painting, drawing, and printmakingRivals RubensKnown for intimacy and expressivenessMaster of group portraitsSuccessful workshop

Rembrandt van Rijn, The Night Watch (The Company of Captain Fans Banning Cocq), 1642. Oil on canvas, 122 x 14/7. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Fig. 19.11.Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)Example:Ability as painter makes him wealthy manCourt painter, The HaguePortrait Civic Guard Company Dynamic design breaks with usual style of group portraitsMisleading title The Night Watch Main character, Cocq, draws in viewerSharp contrast of light and darkPainting admired during time

Rembrandt van Rijn, The Night Watch (The Company of Captain Fans Banning Cocq), 1642. Oil on canvas, 122 x 14/7. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Fig. 19.11.Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)Example:Takes name from contemporary price paid at auctionCollapsed narrative of Matthew (19)Humble and emotional piece created over several yearsModels possibly Jewish peoples whom artist had sympathy and respect for Use of light and dark to create spiritual and dramatic moment

Rembrandt van Rijn, The Hundred Guilder Print, c. 1647. Etching and dry point, 11 x 12 3/4. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Fig. 19.12.

Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)Example:Rembrandt made many studies of his self-portrait, even painting over previously used canvases throughout his lifetimeIt shows Rembrandt in what appears to be his plain and stained painter's clothes -- but in a stance of supreme assuranceThe painting seems to assert pure genius of this man -- and not fine clothing, wealth, or high birth -- make him a member of the only aristocracy that matters

Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-Portrait, 1652. Oil on canvas, 45 x 32. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)Example:Self-portraits possibly serve as studies for paintings, study of emotional expression, ads to display talentBold po