Presents: KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTS Piano Organ Celesta COMBINATION OF INSTRUMENTS A. ENSEMBLE MEDIA Orchestra Symphony orchestra Concerto Band Rondalla
B. MIXED ENSEMBLES Chamber orchestra Chamber ensembles Special ensembles THE CONDUCTOR
REPORTERS: Zhara Lou G. Perez Reinalyn V. Baluyut Mara Clarisa M. Foronda
PART ONE: KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTS COMBINATION OF INSTRUMENTS REPORTED BY: ZHARA LOU G. PEREZ
KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTS These instruments are operated by means of a keyboard which consists of black and white keys. Although the keyboard instruments are included with the percussion group, they constitute a special set which may be considered seperately. Keyboard instruments include: piano, organ, celesta, and other keyboard instruments like: piano accordion, and the harmonium.
The piano is the most popular and most widespread of all instruments. It has the ability to sound several tones simultaneously and has the capacity to present complex musical textures by itself, making an extremely useful instrument.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PIANO Concert Grand Piano- the largest size of grand piano, used for concert performances. Grand Piano- a horizontal, harp-shaped piano, having three or more strings to each note, and action without springs. Square Piano- a piano having a horizontal rectangular case and horizontally atrung wire. Upright Piano- a piano in which the case is upright, with the strings vertical and overstrung to save space.
Concert grand piano Square piano Upright piano
THE ORGAN the organ is a principal keyboard instrument but it has a physical property which makes it a wind instrument. Its sounds are made by air forced by mechanical means through pipes.
chord organ Electric organ Church reed organ Electric Hammond organ
LAS PINAS BAMBOO ORGAN
CELESTA the celesta, which in appearance resembles a miniature upright piano, is a kind of glockenspiel that is operated by a keyboard; the steel plates are struck by small hammers producing bell-like tones.
OTHER MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS PLAYED BY KEYBOARD: HARMONIUM Is a keyboard instrument related to the organ in that its tone is produced by air (belows operated by feet) which sets thin strips of metal (reeds) vibrating. PIANO ACCORDION Has a melody keyboard for the right hand.
HARMONIUM PIANO ACCORDION
COMBINATION OF INSTRUMENTS: ENSEMBLE MEDIA MIXED ENSEMBLES
A. ENSEMBLE MEDIA When two or more performers are equally engaged in playing or singing a piece of music, the medium is called an ensemble (an sambl) and the music is called ensemble music Instrumental ensembles exists in almost infinite combinations. Some of these are the follows: Orchestra The symphony orchestra Concerto Band The rondalla
ORCHESTRA The most spectacular of ensembles, composed of any sizable group of instrumental performers usually under the direction of a conductor It may vary in size from a relatively small groups to an ensemble of a hundred or more players. The performers are divided into the four sections. In large orchestras, approximately 2/3 are string players and 1/3 are wind players. Three to five people take care of the percussion.
In a typical modern orchestra, there are 34 violins which are divided into 2 groups, first and second. Each group functions as a unit and plays a part distinct from the rest. In the woodwind section, one of the players of the principal instrument generaly doubles with another related instrument.
The symphony orchestra
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRAIs a large ensemble which includes all the principal instrument types. The modern symphony orchestra has about 100 players, this number varies according to the kind of music being played. It is composed of four sections of corresponding to the four instrumental groupings; the string section. The woodwind section, the brass section, and the percussion section Each of these sections has least one instrument which falls into each of the four basic ranges: SOPRANO, ALTO, TENOR, AND BASS
EXAMPLE OF SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA THE MANILA SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
PRAGUE SYMPHONY ORHESTRA
PART TWO: Combination of instruments: ENSEMBLE MEDIA CONCERTO BAND THE RONDALLA MIXED ENSEMBLES CHAMBER ORCHESTRA REPORTED BY: BALUYUT, REINALYN V.
CONCERT O The concerto is a form written for orchestra and usually one solo instrument (PIANO, VIOLIN, AND THE LIKE) is given a prominent role in music.
THE BAND An instrumental ensemble, large like the orchestra but consisting mainly or exclusively of wind and percussion instruments. Although the band is closely associated with outdoor events (parades, funerals, football games, among others), it is also used as a concert ensemble.
THE RONDALLA The best-known instrumental group in the Philippines today. It is a band made up mostly of stringed instruments like: Banduria- which assumes the lead part and plays the melody Laud and octavina- which carry the alto and contrapuntal parts Piccolo- tuned aboved the banduria, which plays the ornamental passages;and Guitarra and banjo- which gives solidity to the rhyrhm and support the harmony.
MUSICAL ENSEMBLES IN THE PHILIPPINES PANGKAT OR THE BANDANG KAWAYAN- composed of instruments made of bamboo. Among these instruments are: Bumbong- single note The native Marimba or Talunggating The bamboo harp or Tipang-klung The Gabbang- which is patterned after the Muslim-type xylophone The Tulali or bamboo flute The Bungkaka or bamboo clapper, and The Kalatok or bamboo knockers.
TULAL I GABBANG LAUD TALUNGGATING
MIXED ENSEMBLES a considerable literature of music exists for large ensembles which include instruments and voices. Such musical types as an opera, oratorio, cantata, mass, re quiem mass, ans even even symphonies may employ vocal soloist, chorus, and orchestra. Mixed chamber ensembles have made their appearance in the 20th century.
THE CHAMBER ORCHESTRA
CHAMBER ORCHESTRA The term chamber orchestra is applied to small instrumental ensembles in which there are only a few performers for a part. Chamber orchestras are in a category of ensemble between chamber ensemble and the full osrchestra
PART THREE CHAMBER ENSEMBLES SPECIAL ENSEMBLES THE CONDUCTOR REPORTED BY: FORONDA, MARA CLARISSA M.
CHAMBER ENSEMBLES Chamber music is a medium which calls for only a few performers (from two about eight or nine instruments) with one player to each part. The common chamber music ensembles are listed below: Solo sonatas- music written for a solo instrument (violin, cello, flue, oboe, horn,and the like), with an accompaniment bys uch instruments such as the piano or harpsichord, belongs to the category of chamber music ensemble. String quartet- the most common medium of chambermusic. It consists 2 violins, a viola, and a cello. When the piano replaces one of the four instruments, the ensembles is called piano quartet.
Duos, Trios, Quintets, And Other - Music in 2 instruments have equal importance is called duo; music for 3 instruments is called trio; for 5, a quintet; for 6, a sextet; fo