Data related to human and economic losses from disasters that
have occurred between 1980 and 2010. Natural Disasters from 1980 -
2010 Overview No of events: 94 No of people killed: 21,002 Average
killed per year: 677 No of people affected: 6,306,441 Average
affected per year: 203,434 Economic Damage (US$ X 1,000): 188,025
Economic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000): 6,065
Drought: 0.03 Earthquake*: ... Epidemic: 1.58 Extreme temp:
0.06 Flood: 1.13 Insect infestation: 0.06 Mass mov. dry: ... Mass
mov. wet: 0.10 Volcano: ... Storm: 0.06 Wildfire: ... Average
Disaster Per Year
Disaster Date Cost (US$ X 1,000) Drought 1983 71,103 Flood 1994
66,500 Flood 2010 30,000 Flood 1985 8,000 Flood 2000 4,805 Flood
2001 3,000 Flood 2003 2,570 Flood 2000 1,900 Flood 2005 147
Epidemic 1986 0 Source of data from slide 3-7: "EM-DAT: The
OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, Universit catholique de
Louvain, Brussels, Bel." Data version: v11.08
The rainy season (2012) in Nigeria has delivered more
precipitation than earlier years, causing flooding in 18 of 38
states. The excessive water run-off was initially contained through
contingency measures, but the heavy rain in 2012 had led to the
overflow of water reservoirs, forced release of dam water and
breaching of river boundaries and banks, resulting in damage to
roads, bridges and other infrastructure, loss of property and
livestock and displacement of people. The floods affected over
134,371 people, displaced 64,473 people, injured 202 and killed 148
people. The displaced population resorted to residing with host
families or in makeshift camps.
The pictures presents a clear view of the countrys poor
drainage and waste management system which exposes its citizen and
the country as a whole to a variety of risks ranging from health
(individual) risk to systematic risks.
The role of the interlinked components of risk management
cannot be overemphasized. Knowledge helps to understand shocks,
internal conditions, and potential outcomes, thus reducing
uncertainty. Protection helps to reduce the probability and size of
losses and increase those of benefits. Insurance is the transfer of
resources across people and over time, from good to bad states of
nature. Coping on the other hand is to recover from losses and make
the most of benefits. In contrast, when preparation is limited, or
a shock is unexpectedly large, coping can be haphazard and require
costly measures leaving few resources for future risk, worsening
vulnerability to shocks, and weakening the household's ability to
undertake new opportunities.
The major factors impeding effective risk management as regards
flood in Nigeria lies both on individuals and the governments path.
On the individuals path is the lack of resources, lack of
information and cognitive failures i.e. majority of homeowners in
flood-prone areas are unaware of the risk of flood, and also
behavioral failures suggesting that in many cases, individuals seem
to have short memories regarding origins of, or prior crisis of
various sort. On the other hand is the failures on the path of the
government. These could stem from capture of interest groups,
corruption of government officials, and distortionary policies.
From the ongoing it is therefore conclusive that the Nigeria
government faced with the tradeoffs of preparing for risk and
coping with its consequence is better at the latter as evidenced in
the next slides which shows the role of the external environment in
reducing the impact of shocks.
Developing countries are already suffering from the impacts of
climate change and are the most vulnerable to further change.
Flooding is the common and most costly natural disaster, though its
impacts are also exacerbated by anthropogenic sources. Quality
assessment of the risk impacts of flood will facilitate countries
to plan adaptation measures and adapt effectively. Risk management
helps to prepare for the shock that could undermine development.
That is, effective combination of capacities (research, protection,
insurance) with an ability to cope with the aftermath of the shock.
Thus risk management helps in effectively combining capacities
thereby setting priorities and making choices which are both
unavoidable and necessary so as to effectively employ and manage
resources. To overcome flooding in Nigeria, we need to learn the
process of effective risk management which begins with the
understanding of risk embodied in a situation, and then how to
effectively prepare for the risk by allocating limited resources
between combined capacities and in essence striking a perfect
balance without halting development.