Its about the impacts of urbanization on various aspects such as the environment , business etc
Text of Impacts of Urbanization
Urbanization is the shift from a rural to an urban society, bringing a large concentration of people into towns and cities.This process usually occurs when a nation is still developing. Leads to a general increase in the population and industralization .
Currently more than 3.3 billion people live in towns and cities , the number is expected to grow to 5 billion by 2030. Over 80 percent of this growth will accrue to Asia and Africa , In 1800 only about 2 percent of the world's population lived in urban areas. In only 200 years, the world's urban population has grown from 2 percent to nearly 50 percent of all people. The population of Chicago increased from 15 people to about 20 million, within a span of 78 years.
Mumbai is the most populous city in India , and the fourth most populous city in the world , with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million. Among all the States and Union territories, the NationalCapitalTerritory of Delhi is most urbanized with 93 percent urban population .
The beginning of urbanization can be traced back to Renaissance times in 16th century. Turkish assaults resulted in movement of Christians from the east to western European countries. As a result, trade grew and European cities along the coasts developed greatly.
A further boost for urbanization was created with the arrival of the Industrial Revolution. Populations of cities in Europe and USA started to increase significantly in the 18th and 19th centuries. However, urbanization started inAsia only in the first half of the 20th century and in the second half of the 20th century in Africa, when the countries obtained independence from colonial rule.
Today as compared to Asian and African countries, countries such as USA and UK have a higher urbanization level. Economic forces helped to locate factories and workers in cities. In USA 5% of the population lived in cities in 1800. By 1920 50% of the population lived in cities. In comparison only 17.8% of population ofThird world societies lived in cities in 1950. But by 2000, the percentage had increased to 40%. By 2030, the percentage is predicted to increase to 60%. Australia is the most urbanized country in the world. Both the rate and level of urbanization in Australia are high.
Urbanization in India was mainly caused after independence, due to adoption of mixed system of economy by the country which gave rise to the development of private sector. Population residing in urban areas in India, according to 1901 census, was 11.4%.This count increased to 28.53% in 2001, and crossing 30% as per 2011 census, standing at 31.16%.
Industrialization: Major cause of urbanization. It has expanded the employment opportunities. Rural people have migrated to cities on account of better employment opportunities. Social factors: Social factors such as better standard of living, better educational facilities induce people to migrate to cities. Employment opportunities : In rural sector people depend mainly on agriculture for their livelihood , but Indian agriculture depends on monsoon. Due to drought people move to cities.
IMPACT ON BUSINESS Positive Impacts Increase in market . Profits of the business will increase. Business can benefit from the infrastructure. Negative Impacts Small scale industries will lose market. Agricultural will take a back seat
IMPACTS ON SOCIETY Positive Impacts Employment opportunities will increase Standard of living increases Easier access to healthcare, education , entertainment. MoreTransport facilities . Social Integration
Negative Impacts Change in consumption patterns will lead to various health complications. Loss of tradition and culture. Crime rate increases Increase in the price of land.
IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENT Positive Impacts The same output can be produced using fewer resources so urbanization reduces the ecological footprint. Urbanization allows more people to have access to environment-friendly facilities and services at affordable prices. Urbanization drives innovation, including green technologies.
Negative Impacts Causes various kinds of pollution like land, air and water pollution. Deforestation Habitat Loss More stress on resources Will lead to scarcity of resources
Urbanization can have a critical role in future development scenarios . Urbanization can be critical for economic growth , for reduction of poverty , for stabilization of population growth and for long term sustainability . The challenge is not to control the rate of urbanization but to achieve a pace and pattern of urban development that is beneficial .