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62 nd Annual Meeting of the Southeastern San Juan, Porto Rico, USA, March 20 – 21 2013 Ketty Balthazard-Accou*, Patrice Agnamey, Elmyre Clervil, Evens Emmanuel Laboratoire de Qualité de l’Eau et de l’Environnement Université Quisqueya 218, Avenue Jean Paul II, Haut de Tugeau, Port-au-Prince, Haiti Email: [email protected]

Risk factor Cryptosporidium

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1. 62nd Annual Meeting of the Southeastern San Juan, Porto Rico, USA, March 20 21 2013 Ketty Balthazard-Accou*, Patrice Agnamey, Elmyre Clervil, Evens Emmanuel Laboratoire de Qualit de lEau et de lEnvironnement Universit Quisqueya 218, Avenue Jean Paul II, Haut de Tugeau, Port-au-Prince, Haiti Email: [email protected] 2. Cryptosporidium in Haiti Cryptosporidiosis is responsible for 17.5% of acute diarrhea in children less than 2 years-old 30% of chronic diarrhoeas in patientsdiarrhoeas in patients infected by HIV In Port-au-Prince, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in surface water and in public water supplies 3. Global view on sanitation in Haiti Feco-oral 4. Port-au-Prince groundwater are exposed to latrine effluents, septic tanks and urban wastewater Since limestone is the main geological factor of Haiti, and all the cities have the same urban characteristics: groundwater of Research considerations characteristics: groundwater of Les Cayes, and Cap-Haitian are also contaminated by Cryptosporidium 5. Analyze the different risk factors associated with transfers of Cryptosporidium oocysts in groundwater from three important cities of Haiti: Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitian and Purpose of this work of Haiti: Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitian and les Cayes 6. Framework of health risk assessment (NRC, 1983) 7. Risks factors A risk factor is an element belonging to an individual or originating from an environment liable to cause an illness, trauma or another negative impact on the development of the human organism (Fougeyrollas et al, 1998).(Fougeyrollas et al, 1998). 8. Conceptual model TransferTarget Management of urban sanitation services (wastewater, human excreta and animal) Soil Groundwater TargetEffects C.h. : Human consumers (cryptosporidiosis: acute diarrhea and chronic abdominal pain, fever and myalgia; ) C.h. Groundwater Tap water 9. Studies sites Materials and methods 10. Les Cayes,South Countys chief city Map of the hydrological south west region of Haiti 11. Port-au-Prince, the national capital of the Republic of Haiti Map of the hydrological center south region of Haiti 12. Map of Cap-Hatian water cathment North Countys chief city 13. Sampling points The water samples were collected from the 21 sites in the conditions defined by standard AFNOR-NFT 90-455 of July 2001. Water samples were taken in December 2009, October 2010 and January 2011.October 2010 and January 2011. The sampling points were chosen according to the water supply points of the population (reservoir, drilling, spring, surface and groundwater). 14. Filtration of the samples In the field Water filtration using Envirochek cartridgescartridges At the laboratory immunomagnetic separation (IMS) immunofluorescence essay (FA). 15. Table 1: Results of Cryptosporidium oocysts detection 16. Conclusion and Perspectives The contamination of untreated public water supplies used for human consumption in the cities of Port-au- Prince, Cap-Haitian and Les Cayes by Cryptosporidium is a significant environmental and public health concerns. Since groundwater is contaminated by Since groundwater is contaminated by Cryptosporidium, it seems interesting to study the hydrodynamic and transfer mechanisms governing the presence of these protozoan in saturated zone. In order to develop appropriate treatments, it should be necessary to study the efficiency of some materials (activated carbon, zeolite, and quartz) in oocysts adsorption. 17. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONFOR YOUR ATTENTION