PIG HEALTH= PIG WEALTH
A presentation made at a pig farmers’ training organized by Pig Production and Marketing on 15.02.2014, Kampala
JOSEPH M KUNGU
National Livestock Resources Research Institute, P.O.Box 96 Tororo Uganda
[email protected] Page 2
• one of the most efficient feed converting
• the only litter bearing animal among meat
producing livestock with the shortest generation
interval and high feed conversion efficiency.
Then why the poor economic returns?
• The preliquisite for high economic returns is
raising a healthy pig herd.
• Unfortunately, today’s pig farmer does it as a by
the way; keeps the pig under very unhygienic
environment, a fertile ground for diseases .
• Economic losses due to diseases arise as mortality and reduced growth rate.
Common diseases of pigs in Uganda
Recent studies (Dione et al,2014) indicate that;
• African Swine Fever (47.5).
• Worms (8.3); Large intestinal roundworms, nodular worms, whipworms, red stomachworms.
• Diarrhoea(4.2),due to indigestion, GIT parasites, worms, sign of systemic infection.
• Malnutrition (3.2), • Ectoparasites;Mange (2.8), Lice (0.3), • FMD (0.1).
How do I know my pig is sick?
• Not active
• Off food and water.
• Recumbent all time
• Isolates itself from the herd
How can I keep a disease free pig herd?
• Clean disinfected surroundings. • Clean water and feed troughs.
• Clean water and feed.
• Prevent dampness, exposure to extreme cold or heat.
• Avoid overcrowding. • Isolate and treat of ailing animals.Regular
deworming of pigs.Always consult your Vet on this.
Basic aid kit on farm
• Drenching gun
• Pig snare
• Pack of disposable syringes and needles
• Oral administration for boluses,
• Injection, in the muscles, under the skin
African Swine Fever= African swine menace
• Todays most devastating pig disease causing
upto 100% death during an outbreak and
• A highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs, warthogs,wild pigs. All age groups are equally susceptible.
How does a pig with ASF appear?
• With high virulence forms of the virus, ASF is characterized by high fever, loss of appetite,
haemorrhages in the skin and internal organs, and death in 2-10 days on average.
• Caused by ASF is a DNA virus of the Asfarviridae family.
• ASF is a notifiable disease.In case of suspected outbreak report to authorities immediately.
How is it transmitted?
• The warthog can serve as a natural reservoir of
the virus without sign of disease. Spread from
this reservoir is via the soft tick Ornithodoros
• The tick will ingest the virus when taking a blood meal and then pass it on to pigs.
• The virus occurs in all body fl uids and tissues • of infected domestic pigs.
How ASF spreads
Pigs usually become infected by;
• Direct contact with infected pigs or ingestion of
garbage containing unprocessed infected pig
meat or pig meat products. All processing
procedures do not inactivate the ASF virus.
• Biting flies and ticks, contaminated premises, vehicles, equipment or clothing can also spread the virus to susceptible animals.
What are the signs of ASF?
Severe cases of the disease are characterized by;
• high fever and death in 2-10 days.
• mortality rate as high as 100%.
• Other clinical signs include loss of appetite, depression,
• redness of the skin of the ears, abdomen, and legs,
• respiratory distress, vomiting, bleeding from the
• nose or rectum and sometimes diarrhoea.
• Abortion may be the first event seen in an outbreak.
Signs of ASF
Moderately virulent forms of the virus produce less intense symptoms with mortality from 30-70%.
Chronic disease symptoms include;
• Loss of weight, intermittent fever, respiratory signs, chronic skin ulcers and arthritis.
How do I confirm that it is ASF?
• Combine clinical signs and Laboratory
diagnositic tools i.e PCR, ELISA.
Signs in pictures
Signs in pictures
How to prevent/control ASF
• There is no published treatment or vaccine for ASF.
• Biosecurity measures are the key strategies for
keeping ASF off your farm.
How to prevent/control ASF
• In endemic areas, it is difficult to eliminate the natural reservoir in warthogs; however, control of the soft tick
vectors is important in preventing the disease.
• Meat from warthogs or infected animals not to be fed to susceptible pigs.
• All successful eradication programs have involved • the rapid diagnosis, slaughter and disposal of all • animals on infected premises, thorough cleaning and • disinfection, disinsectisation, movement controls • and surveillance.
• Every pig has a right be healthy (Proverbs
• Farmers should aim at preventing diseases and parasites rather than treating after they occur. “Prevention is better than cure" .
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING.
GOD BLESS YOU IN JESUS NAME (Deut 8:16-18).