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PIG HEALTH= PIG WEALTH A presentation made at a pig farmers’ training organized by Pig Production and Marketing on 15.02.2014, Kampala JOSEPH M KUNGU National Livestock Resources Research Institute, P.O.Box 96 Tororo Uganda [email protected]

Pig health= pig wealth

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Page 1: Pig health= pig wealth


A presentation made at a pig farmers’ training organized by Pig Production and Marketing on 15.02.2014, Kampala


National Livestock Resources Research Institute, P.O.Box 96 Tororo Uganda

[email protected]

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The pig;

• one of the most efficient feed converting


• the only litter bearing animal among meat

producing livestock with the shortest generation

interval and high feed conversion efficiency.

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Then why the poor economic returns?

• The preliquisite for high economic returns is

raising a healthy pig herd.

• Unfortunately, today’s pig farmer does it as a by

the way; keeps the pig under very unhygienic

environment, a fertile ground for diseases .

• Economic losses due to diseases arise as mortality and reduced growth rate.

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Common diseases of pigs in Uganda

Recent studies (Dione et al,2014) indicate that;

• African Swine Fever (47.5).

• Worms (8.3); Large intestinal roundworms, nodular worms, whipworms, red stomachworms.

• Diarrhoea(4.2),due to indigestion, GIT parasites, worms, sign of systemic infection.

• Malnutrition (3.2), • Ectoparasites;Mange (2.8), Lice (0.3), • FMD (0.1).

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How do I know my pig is sick?

• Not active

• Off food and water.

• Restless

• Recumbent all time

• Isolates itself from the herd

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How can I keep a disease free pig herd?

• Clean disinfected surroundings. • Clean water and feed troughs.

• Clean water and feed.

• Prevent dampness, exposure to extreme cold or heat.

• Avoid overcrowding. • Isolate and treat of ailing animals.Regular

deworming of pigs.Always consult your Vet on this.

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Basic aid kit on farm

• Thermometer

• Drenching gun

• Pig snare

• Pack of disposable syringes and needles

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Drug administration

• Oral administration for boluses,


• Injection, in the muscles, under the skin

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African Swine Fever= African swine menace

• Todays most devastating pig disease causing

upto 100% death during an outbreak and

occurs countrywide.

• A highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs, warthogs,wild pigs. All age groups are equally susceptible.

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How does a pig with ASF appear?

• With high virulence forms of the virus, ASF is characterized by high fever, loss of appetite,

haemorrhages in the skin and internal organs, and death in 2-10 days on average.

• Caused by ASF is a DNA virus of the Asfarviridae family.

• ASF is a notifiable disease.In case of suspected outbreak report to authorities immediately.

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How is it transmitted?

• The warthog can serve as a natural reservoir of

the virus without sign of disease. Spread from

this reservoir is via the soft tick Ornithodoros


• The tick will ingest the virus when taking a blood meal and then pass it on to pigs.

• The virus occurs in all body fl uids and tissues • of infected domestic pigs.

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How ASF spreads

Pigs usually become infected by;

• Direct contact with infected pigs or ingestion of

garbage containing unprocessed infected pig

meat or pig meat products. All processing

procedures do not inactivate the ASF virus.

• Biting flies and ticks, contaminated premises, vehicles, equipment or clothing can also spread the virus to susceptible animals.

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What are the signs of ASF?

Severe cases of the disease are characterized by;

• high fever and death in 2-10 days.

• mortality rate as high as 100%.

• Other clinical signs include loss of appetite, depression,

• redness of the skin of the ears, abdomen, and legs,

• respiratory distress, vomiting, bleeding from the

• nose or rectum and sometimes diarrhoea.

• Abortion may be the first event seen in an outbreak.

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Signs of ASF

Moderately virulent forms of the virus produce less intense symptoms with mortality from 30-70%.

Chronic disease symptoms include;

• Loss of weight, intermittent fever, respiratory signs, chronic skin ulcers and arthritis.

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ASF in pictures

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How do I confirm that it is ASF?

• Combine clinical signs and Laboratory

diagnositic tools i.e PCR, ELISA.

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How to prevent/control ASF

• There is no published treatment or vaccine for ASF.

• Biosecurity measures are the key strategies for

keeping ASF off your farm.

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How to prevent/control ASF

• In endemic areas, it is difficult to eliminate the natural reservoir in warthogs; however, control of the soft tick

vectors is important in preventing the disease.

• Meat from warthogs or infected animals not to be fed to susceptible pigs.

• All successful eradication programs have involved • the rapid diagnosis, slaughter and disposal of all • animals on infected premises, thorough cleaning and • disinfection, disinsectisation, movement controls • and surveillance.

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• Every pig has a right be healthy (Proverbs


• Farmers should aim at preventing diseases and parasites rather than treating after they occur. “Prevention is better than cure" .

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