Ukrainian Migration in Time of Crisis: Forced and Labour Mobility

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  • Ukrainian Migra onin Times of Crisis:Forced and Labour Mobility Duan Drbohlav, Marta Jaroszewicz(editors)

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  • Ukrainian Migra on in Times of Crisis:Forced and Labour Mobility

  • Ukrainian Migra onin Times of Crisis:Forced and Labour Mobility Duan Drbohlav, Marta Jaroszewicz(editors)

    Charles UniversityFaculty of Science

    Prague 2016

  • SFPASlovak Foreign Policy Association

    Edited by: Duan Drbohlav, Marta JaroszewiczReviewers: Marta Kindler, Yana Leon yevaPublished by Charles University, Faculty of Science,Department of Social Geography and Regional Development,Albertov 6, Prague 2, Czechia; ksgrrsek@natur.cuni.czCover photo: AP Photo/Sergei Grits (Kiev, Ukraine, December 2013)First published.

    Charles University, Faculty of Science, 2016

    ISBN 978-80-7444-048-9

  • This publication originated in the framework of the project Ukraines migration monitoring: forced and labour mobility (20152016) financed by the International Visegrad Fund.

    The project was carried out by Geomigrace from Charles University (Czechia), together with the Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW) from Poland, the Slovak Foreign Policy Association, and Europe without Barriers from Ukraine.

    This book is accompanied with Volume II (Monitoring of Migration Data and Policy Changes Conducted in Ukraine, Poland, Czechia and Slovakia, September 2015 June 2016) where results of the monitoring of available migration data and policy changes are presented. The monthly reports served as a statistical and policy basis for our field qualitative study.

  • Table of contents

    INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Duan Drbohlav, Marta Jaroszewicz

    The Security situa on in Ukraine 15Migra on trends in Ukraine before conflict erup on 16EU migra on crisis 16Conflict and migra on. Nuanced links 16Research methodology 18Acknowledgments 20References 21

    CHAPTER 1Ukranian migra on abroad during the contemporary crisis: economic reasons s ll prevailIryna Sushko, Kateryna Kulchytska, Daryna Koriagina (Europe without Barriers)Oleksiy Pozniak (The Ptukha Ins tute of Demography and Social Studies,Na onal Academy of Sciences of Ukraine)

    1.1 Introduc on 241.1.1Migra on pa erns of Ukrainian ci zens prior to 2014 241.1.2Emergence of IDPs since 2014 28

    1.2 Own research 311.2.1Research methodology 311.2.2Experts 311.2.3Labour migrants 321.2.4Internally Displaced Persons 34

    1.3 Main results of the research 351.3.1New migra on pa erns and models 351.3.2Migrants assessment of the migra on situa on 391.3.3The situa on of IDPs and their possible migra on aspira ons 44

    1.4 Conclusions and recommenda ons 51References 53Annex 54

  • CHAPTER 2Ukrainian migra on to Poland a er the Revolu on of Dignity: old trends or new exodus? Marta Jaroszewicz, Tomasz Piechal (Centre for Eastern Studies OSW)

    2.1 Introduc on 602.2 The migratory situa on in Poland 61

    2.2.1Available data 612.2.2Roots of migra on and policy evolu on 64

    2.3 Role of Ukrainian migra on in Poland 672.4 Own research 71

    2.4.1Methodology 712.4.2Results of the empirical research 72

    2.5 Conclusions 87References 89Annex 90

    CHAPTER 3Current Ukrainian migra on to Czechia refuge for economic migrants rather than for refugees Duan Drbohlav, Markta Seidlov (Geomigrace, Department of Social Geographyand Regional Development, Faculty of Science, Charles University)

    3.1 Introduc on 963.2 Migra on in Czechia in brief 97

    3.2.1Economic and poli cal context 973.2.2Migra on policy 973.2.3Composi on of the migrant popula on 98

    3.3 Ukrainians in Czechia 993.3.1History 993.3.2A er 1993 993.3.3A er 2014 100

    3.4 Own empirical interview 1073.4.1Research ques ons and methodology 1073.4.2Main results 109

    3.5 Conclusions and discussion 122References 124Annex 125

  • CHAPTER 4Growing migra on of Ukranians into Slovakia: new migra on pa ernsas a result of the unstable situa on in Ukraine Vladimr Ben (Research Centre of the Slovak Foreign Policy Associa on)

    4.1 Introduc on 1304.2 Migra on in the Slovak Republic 131

    4.2.1Regular migra on to Slovakia 1314.2.2Labour migra on 1324.2.3Visa policy towards Ukrainian ci zens 1354.2.4Irregular migra on & Asylum seekers 136

    4.3 Own research 1414.3.1Methodology 1414.3.2Slovak Migra on Experts 1414.3.3Ukrainian migrants to Slovakia 154

    4.4 Conclusions 163References 165Annex 166

    CONCLUDING REMARKS Duan Drbohlav, Marta Jaroszewicz

    Influence of conflict: IDPs and new migra on flows 170Different factors influencing migra on 172Circular and permanent migra on 172IDPs and migrants integra on 173Policy measures 174What may the future look like? 175Conceptual issues 175Rela onships between voluntary and forced migra on movements 176Trajectories of migra on development of the Visegrad group countries studied 176Migrants strategies in terms of using short-term circular versus long-termor permanent migra on 177References 179

  • List of tables

    POLANDTab. 1 All valid permits issued to foreign na onals in Poland by 31 December of each year 61Tab. 2 Number of foreigners with valid residence permits (different types) in Poland

    as of 1 January 2016 (stock data) 63Tab. 3 Number of employers declara on issued to foreigners in Poland in 20142016

    (first half of the year) 63Tab. 4 Number of work permits issued to foreigners in Poland in 20102015 63Tab. 5 All valid permits issued to Ukrainian na onals in Poland by 31 December

    of each year 67Tab. 6 Number of visas issued by Poland in Ukraine in 20132015 68

    CZECHIATab. 7 Asylum and subsidiary protec on granted to Ukrainians in Czechia (20052015) 103Tab. 8 Applica ons for long-term visas or long-term residence permits at the Czech

    embassy in Ukraine (20072015) 105Tab. 9 Applica ons for short-term visas to Czechia 105

    SLOVAKIATab. 10 Top na onali es with valid residence permits third country na onals,

    comparing 2015 to 2013 132Tab. 11 Employment of foreigners in Slovakia (at the end of a year) 134Tab. 12 Visa refusal rate by Consulates of the SR by na onality of applicants

    TOP 4 na onali es 137Tab. 13 Asylum seekers in Slovakia 138Tab. 14 Overview of illegal migra on on the territory of the Slovak Republic

    in 2014 and 2015 139

  • List of figures

    UKRAINEFig. 1 The percentage of informants who were working abroad and the informants

    whose family members have worked or s ll work abroad, arranged by regions (%) 26Fig. 2 Division of labour migrants by country of des na on (based on the last trip),

    2008 and 2012 27Fig. 3 The percentage of internally displaced persons among the popula on

    of Ukrainian regions as of July 12, 2015 29Fig. 4 Division of interviewed migrants by gender and age 33Fig. 5 Division of the informants according to the answer to the ques on

    Has the a tude of people in the country of your residence changed towardsUkrainians during recent years? 43

    POLANDFig. 6 The number of Ukrainian ci zens studying in Poland in 20052016 (stock data) 69

    CZECHIAFig. 7 Foreigners living in Czechia, Ukrainians versus others (19942015) 100Fig. 8 Share of Ukrainian migrants in the total popula on of foreigners living

    in the districts of Czechia (as of 31 March 2016) 101Fig. 9 Asylum seekers in Czechia (19902015) 102Fig. 10 Asylum seekers (submi ed asylum applica ons) in Czechia,

    Ukrainians versus others (January 2014April 2016) 103Fig. 11 Asylum and subsidiary protec on granted to Ukrainians in Czechia

    (by individual months; 20142016) 104

    SLOVAKIAFig. 12 Percentage of foreigners in the total popula on of Slovakia (in %) 131Fig. 13 Visa applica ons and granted visa to UA ci zens by SK consulates 137

  • INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

    Duan Drbohlav, Marta Jaroszewicz

  • 14INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

    This publication presents the results of one-year in-depth statistical and field research conducted in the framework of the project Ukraines migration monitoring: forced and labour mobility (20152016) financed by the International Visegrad Fund. The project was carried out by Geomigrace from Charles University in Prague, together with the Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW) from Poland, the Slovak Foreign Policy Association and Europe without Barriers from Ukraine. The project aimed to investigate the possible impact of the deteriorating security situation following the Russian annexation of Crimea and the eruption of armed conflict in Eastern Europe on migration from Ukraine to the EU, particularly to Poland, Czechia, and Slovakia. The project also aempted to identify any new trends and paerns in recent Ukrainian migration to the EU. We also considered the humanitarian, social and economic situation of internally displaced persons in Ukraine and possible linkages to international migration.

    The publication focuses on the presentation of the results of our empirical research compared against available statistical data. It also reflects on broader migration-related theoretical considerations and concepts such as nuanced links between forced and economic migration, selectivity of migration processes and the effects of internal dis-placement, trajectories of migration developments in the destination countries or finally concepts explaining short-term versus long-term migration. However theoretical consid-erations were not the aim of our research. Our goal was to study, possibly for the first time in a comprehensive way, the impact of the eruption of armed conflict and the destabiliza-tion of the security situation in Ukraine on migration paerns of Ukrain