Endocrinology by Naveed Akhtar

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


It will be usefull in understanding about Hypertension


  • 1.Topic Hypertension Presented To: Sir Bakht Tareen Presented By: Naveed Akhtar

2. Hypertension Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. HTN means the heart is working harder than normal , putting extra strain on the heart and vessels. When the normal regulatory mechanisms fail, hypertension develops. 3. Hypertension 4. Hypertension Hypertension may be classified as essential or secondary. Essential hypertension is the term for high blood pressure with unknown cause. It accounts for about 95% of cases. 5. Secondary hypertension The remaining 510% of cases (secondary hypertension) are caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart and endocrine system. 6. Hypertension Some 70 million adults in the United States are affected by hypertension. The condition also affects about two million teens and children. According to a report issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in September 2012, over half all Americans with hypertension do not have their high blood pressure under control. 7. Hypertension Persistent blood pressure that is higher than the recommended blood pressure range. Category Systolic Blood Pressure Diastolic Blood Pressure Normal < 120 160 >100 8. Hypertension Approximately one in four American adults has hypertension. As many as 2.8 million children also have high blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension increases with age. 9. Prevalence of Hypertension by Age Age % Hypertensive 18-29 4% 30-39 11% 40-49 21% 50-59 44% 60-69 54% 70-79 64% 80+ 65% 10. Factors effecting HTN How much water and salt you have in your body. The condition of your kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels. The levels of different body hormones. 11. Causes Exact cause is unknown. 90%-95% of the time hypertension is elevated blood pressure without an identifiable cause. 12. Causes Drink too much alcohol (more than one drink per day for women and more than two drinks per day for men). Eat too much salt in your diet. Stress. 13. Causes Have a family history of high blood pressure. Have diabetes. Smoking. Obesity. 14. Effects Heart Failure. Enlarged Left Side of the Heart. Coronary Artery Disease. Retinal Damage (Eyes). 15. Effects Cerebrovascular disease (Brain) Peripheral Vascular Disease Kidney Failure 16. Advice It should be kept in mind that when you are going to check your blood pressure you have to go to a prescribed doctor. 17. Symptoms HTN is so dangerous that it has no symptoms. Therefore HTN is termed as The Silent Killer. 18. Malignant hypertension. If you have a severe headache, nausea or vomiting, bad headache, confusion, changes in your vision, or nosebleeds you may have a severe and dangerous form of high blood pressure called malignant hypertension. 19. Tests High cholesterol levels Heart disease, such as an echocardiogram or electrocardiogram Kidney disease, such as a basic metabolic panel and urinalysis or ultrasound of the kidneys 20. Treatment You can do many things to control your blood pressure, including: 1. Eat a heart-healthy diet, including potassium and fiber, and drink plenty of water. 2. Exercise regularly -- at least 30 minutes. 3. Stop smoking. 21. Treatment 4. Limit how much alcohol you drink (one drink a day for women, two a day for men). 5. Limit the amount of sodium (salt) you eat (less than 1,500 mg per day). 6. Reduce stress. 22. Treatment Stay at a healthy body weight (find a weight-loss program to help you, if you need it).