Assignment no-2Topic: collection of various journals literature for Description about Researches,properties undergoing on 5different plants 9/23/20161
Submitted to:Dr.Shailendra Tripathi.,(MD)Submitted by:D.GnanabhaskarRegno:16TMM2364National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research S.A.S. Nagar
9/23/20162 1.Maplia atadinata 2.Tinospora cordifolia3.Caricca papaya4.Wall nut5.Almond
3ALMONDSScientific name:Prunus dulcisbenefits of soaking almonds in water also include its use in the prevention of cancer, diabetes, inflammation and stomach disorders.Almonds contain folic acid, which is one of the most important nutrient to prevent birth defect in pregnancyAlmonds help in maintaining proper levels of cholesterol by increasing the level of HDL and decreasing the level of LDL. This helps in prevention of a majority of heart diseases.USESVITAMINB17
Anatomy and cell wall polysaccharides of almond (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb) seeds.
The anatomy of Prunus dulcis was analyzed by applying several differential staining techniques and light microscopy. Prunus dulcis cell wall material is very rich in arabinose (45 mol %). Glucose (23%), uronic acids (12%), and xylose (12%) are also major sugar components. The polymers obtained from the imidazole , Na(2)CO(3), pectic substances rich in arabinose, but the sugar content of these extracts was very low.The majority of the pectic substances (also rich in arabinose) was recovered with the KOH extracts. These extracts, with high sugar content, yielded also xyloglucans and acidic xylans. The 4 M KOH + H(3)BO(3) extracts yielded polysaccharides rich in uronic acids and xylose and very rich in arabinose, accounting for 27% of the cell wall material.
4PMID: 14995147 DOI: 10.1021/jf030061r
The findings of this project permit to confirm that almond cell wall limited lipid digestibility not only in presence of pancreatic lipase but also gastric lipase and pancreatic lipase-related protein 2.
Digestion of Raw and Roasted Almonds in Simulated Gastric Environment
Compared with raw almonds, roasted almonds had less ability to absorb gastric juice and lower swelling capacity in simulated gastric environment. Reduced almond size led to a faster disintegration rate (shorter half time) and a higher level of swelling. The long half time of disintegration and the high amount of swelling of the almonds in the stomach may contribute to their high satiety property. While there was no significant difference in the solid loss (nutrient release) in static soaking and trial A in which only hydrodynamic mixing was involved, roasting significantly improved the disintegration rates of almonds and the solid loss when mechanical force was present. The internal resistance is more important than external resistance for leaching of nutrients from almond kernel to gastric environment
CONCLUSION. Examination of microstructure indicated that the breakage and breach of cell walls are important for almond digestion.9/23/20165 Biophysics (2009) 4: 365. doi:10.1007/s11483-009-9135-6
Clinical Study of the Prunus dulcis (Almond) Shell Extract on Tinea capitis InfectionPrunus dulcis (Almond) shell extract demonstrated for its biomedical applications. Shell extract prepared by soxhlet method. In this study the antifungal activity of almond shell extract was observed against clinically isolated pathogenic fungus by strip method. The antioxidant potential of crude shell extract was also evaluated by using DPPH (2-2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl) and radical scavenging system. The total antioxidant activity varied from 94.38 to 95.49% and total phenolic content was found 4.455 mg/g in almond shell extract. Finally the results provide a great therapeutic potential against infection of scalp caused by Tinea capitis and result can be achieved in 20 days therapy.
CONCLUSION: the data and results obtained during this study indicates that outer shell of P.dulcis contain highest values of antioxidant potential due to presence of phenolic content in good quantity, therefore the use of shell extract of almond as a antimycotic drug may reduce the risk of common environmental microbial infections particularly Ring worm or Tinea infections. Finally suggests that this waste material is highly effective and safe antifungal drug .
Natural Products Chemistry & Research Thebo et al., Nat Prod Chem Res 2014, 2:3 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/23296836.1000131
Phytochemical investigations and evaluation of antidiabetic potential ofPrunus dulcisnuts
The present study is focused on the phytochemical characterization through chromatographic isolation and purification, and mass spectrometric identification of various compounds along with evaluation of antidiabetic activity of various extracts ofP. dulcisnuts. Stigmasitosterol-3-O--D-glucoside and -d-Glucopyranosyl-(12)--d-fructofuranoside were isolated for the first time along with a known compound isolated previously from the skin of the almond. Mass spectrometric analysis delivered some compounds like catechin dihexoside, caffeoyl-6'-secologanoside and (epi)catechin-ethyl trimer which were detected for the first time in almond along with other compounds which have been identified in the skin of almond. Highest antidiabetic activity has been determined for 70% ethanol extract, even more than the control sample, among the other extracts evaluated. The published literature showed no such detailed study of the whole almond nuts as the main focus was on the brown almond skin, and is presented for the first time.
9/23/20167LWT - Food Science and TechnologyVolume 66, March 2016, Pages 311317
In the present study, we have discussed the chemical composition, the nutritional value and the pharmacological actions of Prunus amygdalus. However, several recently published reports on the bio-active potential of almonds have indicated their rising pharmacological and medicinal significance. In the past few years, many promising bioactivities such as Hypolipidaemic, hypoglycaemic, immunostimulant, antioxidant and the nootropic activity of Prunus amygdalus have been reported. the first time, the bioactive potential of Prunus amygdalus as a hepato-protective agent, an aphrodisiac and an agent for increasing the fertility have been realized. The pharmacological and medicinal significance of Prunus amygdalus is gradually increasing. Studies which involve clinical trials in human subjects remain to be performed. 9/23/2016
Therapeutic Applications of Almonds (Prunus amygdalus L): A Review
Effects of Plant-Based Diets High in Raw or Roasted Almonds, or Roasted Almond Butter on Serum Lipoproteins in HumansAll three forms of almonds in the context of a heart-healthy diet significantly lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) from baseline to the completion of the study. Both raw and roasted almonds significantly lowered TC, whereas the decrease by almond butter (in a smaller cohort) did not reach statistical significance. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) did not significantly change with raw or roasted almonds but slightly increased with almond butter. At the end of the study, blood pressure did not change significantly from baseline values for any of the groups.
Conclusion:These results suggest that unblanched almondswhether raw, dry roasted, or in roasted butter formcan play an effective role in cholesterol-lowering, plant-based diets.
9/23/20169Pages 195-200 | Received 01 Jul 2002, Accepted 27 Sep 2002, Published online: 19 Jun 2013http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2003.10719293JournalJournal of the American College of Nutrition
Antioxidative Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Almond Skins (Prunus amygdalusBatsch)
Nine phenolic compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate andn-butanol fractions of almond (Prunus amygdalus) skins. On the basis of NMR data, MS data, and comparison with the literature, these compounds were identified as 3-O-methylquercetin 3-O--d-glucopyranoside (1); 3-O-methylquercetin 3-O--d-galactopyranoside (2); 3-O-methylquercetin 3-O--l-rhamnopyranosyl-(16)--d-glucopyranoside (3); kaempferol 3-O--l-rhamnopyranosyl-(16)--d-glucopyranoside (4); naringenin 7-O--d-glucopyranoside (5); catechin (6); protocatechuic acid (7); vanillic acid (8); andp-hydroxybenzoic acid (9). All of these compounds have been isolated from almond skins for the first time. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities for compounds19were determined. Compounds6and7show very strong DPPH radical scavenging activity. Compounds13,5,8, and9show strong activity, whereas compound4has very weak activity.
9/23/201610J. Agric. Food Chem.,2002,50(8), pp 24592463DOI:10.1021/jf011533+Publication Date (Web): March 7, 2002
Efficacy study of Prunus amygdalus (almond) nuts in scopolamine-induced amnesia in ratsABSTRACTObjective: Cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimers diseaseare emerging nightmares in the field of medicine because no exact cure exists for them,as existing nootropic agents (piractam, tacrine, metrifonate) have several limitations.The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Prunus amygdalus (PA)nuts on cognitive functions, total cholesterol levels and cholinesterase (ChE) activity inscopolamine-induced amnesia in rats.Materials and Methods: The paste of PA nuts was administered orally at three doses(150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) for 7 and 14 consecutive days to the respective groups of rats.Piracetam (200 mg/kg) was used as a standard nootropic agent. Learning and memory paramet