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Temperament and Character Inventory

fine_wiseman2 March 2012DOPP, MWI BermudaMarcel WesterlundConsultant Forensic and Adult Psychiatrist

Physiognomy and personality

1930s Kretschmer: Physical types Psychological disorderPycnic, Asthenic and Athletic types

1950s Sheldon: Physical typesPersonalityEctomorph, mesomorph and endomorphCerebrotonic, somatotonic & viccerotonic

Trait theories

Allport Frequency, intensity & range of solutions

1963Norman - Neurotiscism, extravcersion, openness, agreeableness & conscientiousness (based on language)1965Cattel Factor analysis on personality traits

1970sEysenck - Neurotiscm & extraversion/introversion later included psychotismGray - Behavioural approach system (BAS) / Behavioural inhibition system (BIS) + Impulsiveness and Anxiety Zuckerman Senasation seeking traits

Neuroscience and personality

Dopamin Reward, pleasure and feeling good

Serotonin Mood

Noradrenalin Action

Behavioural genetics Monozygotic & dizygotic twins studied according to heritability of personality traits

Evolutionary psychology History, evoloution and genetics. Adaptation.

Temperament 40 - 60 % genetically dependant ( Loehlin 1982 )

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Biological personality models

Temperament defined as:

1973 Sjbring Solidity vs impulsivity, validity vs compulsivity, stability vs moody sociability

1977 Thomas & Chess Behavioral style rather than the content or purpose of behavior

1981 Rothbart & Derryberry Traits relatively stable , cross situations consistent and evident throughout the age span and diverse cultures

1984 Buss & Plumin Components of personality are biological in origin

1990Goldsmith & Campos Affective components and individual differences

1986 Cloninger Unified biosocial personality theory.

Temperament represents automatic responses in information processing and learning, presumed to be heritable, whereas character reflects personality development in the context of insight learning and environmental experiences.

Pic_CloningerProfessor Robert CloningerWashington University School of Nedicine St Louis, USA

Personality Instruments

1942Minnesota Multiphasic Personality InventoryMMPI567 q 10 subscales

Revised 1989 and 2001

1970Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor16PF211 q24 subscales factors

1975 Karolinska Scale of Personality(rev. 2000)KSP 91 q 13 subscales

Eysenck Personality Questionnaire rev. 1985EPQ420 q24 subscales

1982Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire(Tellegen)MPQ276 q18 subsclaes

1985Californian Psychological Inventory(Gough) CPI480 q18 subscales

Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire(Cloninger) TPQ10012 subscales

1994Temperament & Character Inventory(Cloninger) TCI240(284)25 subscales

YearScaleAbbr.Questions Subscales

Requirements

Reliability The accuracy with which the questionnaire measures a given quality

Stability Test and retest correlation.

Validity The measure actually does assess what it purports to assess.

girl_walking

Projections of dopamine neurons

Amfetamines, opiats, cocaine, and alcohol are all dopamine agonists.

s92Prefrontal cortex, central amygdala, LC, habenula, nc of striae terminalis, nc accumbens, hypothalamiska krnan nra eminentia medialis

s200Projections of serotonin neurons

Septo-hippocampal area, amygdala, Substantia nigra, VMH, nc raphe & accumbens, and frontal tegmental area.

s146LC, Tegmental area, hypothalamus, and limbicsystem.Projections of noradrenalin neurons

Actions of neuro-transmittors on stimulus-response

From Neurogeneteic mechanisms of learning: A phylogenetic perspective Cloninger & Gilligan

* Added by MW

StressAch/5-HTCRF5-HT

DA/NAACTH-endorfin

Chatecholamin activationActive avoidanceIncreased visual discrimination & activationTyrosinhydroxylas activated

Stress-induced analgesiaSedationBehavior activation

Cortisol

InhibitionNAStimulationDAInhibition

Inhibition

Downregulation of HPAHPA5-HT activation

InhibitionSustained stress reduce type-II glucoc.receptors in Hippocampus = dexometason does not affect glucocorticoider

Inhibition

Temperament

PersonalityNovelty SeekingExploratory excititment vs stoic rigidityImpusiveness vs reflectionExtravagance vs reserveDisorderliness vs regimentationDopamineadventure_board_airUnconscious automatic reactions

Associative learning

Temperament

PersonalityHarm AvoidanceWorry vs unhibited optimismFear of uncertainty vs confidenceShyness vs gregariousnessFatigability vs vigourSerotoninUnconscious automatic reactions

Associative learning

puishment

Temperament

PersonalityReward DependanceNoradrenalineSentimentality vs insensitivenessAttachment vs detachmentDependance vs independancechocolate2Unconscious automatic reactions

Associative learning

Temperament

PersonalityNovelty SeekingPassive activationHarm AvoidancePassive avoidanceReward DependanceSocial attachmentHabitual systemPersistencePartial reinforcementDopaminSerotoninNoradrenalinNoradrenalin

Associative learning

Character

Self-directednessIndividualResponsibilityPurposefulnessResourcefulnessSelf-acceptanceCongruent second natureConscious planning

Conceptual insight

confidence

Character

CooperativenessThe EnvironmentSocial acceptanceEmpathyHelpfulnessCompassionIntegrated conscienceConscious planning

Conceptual insight

compassion

Character

Self-TranscendenceThe WorldSelf-forgetfulnessTranspersonal identitySpiritual acceptanceConscious planning

Conceptual insight

vivekananda1

Character

PersonalitySelf-directednessIndividualCooperativenessSocial environmentSelf-TranscendenceThe WorldCognition

Conscious planning

TCI

PersonalityTemperamentCharacterNovelty SeekingPassive activation

Harm AvoidancePassive avoidanceReward DependenceSocial attachment

PersistencePartial reinforcementSelf-directednessIndividualCooperativenessSocial environment

Self-transcendenceThe World

Habitual systemCognitionAssociative learning

Unconscious automatic reactions

Conceptual insight

Conscious planning

TCI profile

Reliability and validity

Rarity scale: Sum of the least frequently endorsed item response from each of the

25 subscales. Endorsement across all indicates a deliberate effort to depict oneself in a highly unlikely way or careless disregard for the content of items being endorsed.

Runs:Number of sequences of consecutive true/false answers.

Average 120. Fewer than 5 % have as many as 134 or as few as 100 of all 240.

Number of true endorsements:

Tendencay to answer yes more or less frequently than usual.

Scale of like items and Scale of Unlike Items

Extent of which respondent is consistent in responding.

Cronbach Alpha

Cronbach's alpha measures how well a set of items (or variables) measures a single

unidimensional latent construct. It is a reliability test.

alphaMost variables show valuesaround or above 0.70 butpersistence and empathy generally shows poor values.

Lack of evidence

Does the Dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory Map a Simple

Genetic Architecture? Evidence From Molecular Genetics and Factor Analysis

Jeffrey H. Herbst, Ph.D., Alan B.

Zonderman, Ph.D., Robert R. McCrae, Ph.D. and Paul T. Costa, Jr., Ph.D.

Am J Psychiatry 157:1285-1290, August 2000

TCI profile

A tool in your pocket

TCI in 3 dimensions

cubexyzZ

X

Y

Passion vs Histrionic

Adventurous vs Antisocial

Avoidant vs Schizoid

Methodical vs Obsessional

Cautious vs Passive-dependant

Stable vs Cyclothymic

Explosive vs Borderline

Sensitive vs Narcissistic

Now assess this person!

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And this leader!

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What about our next leader?

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Results

George W Bush

Dalai Lama

David Cameron

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