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General awareness of diagnostic radiology

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General awareness of Diagnostic Radiology

Text of General awareness of diagnostic radiology

  • 1. WHAT IS RADIATION? Radiation is a process in which a body emits energy that propagates through a medium, or through empty space, to be absorbed by other bodies. A body which emits radiation is said to be a radioactive body.

2. TYPES OF RADIATION IONIZING RADIATION This kind of radiation, on interaction with matter can produce charged particles called ions. Some of these rays in excess can be harmful. These are even used for medical purposes. Examples include X-rays, cosmic rays, gamma rays. NON-IONIZING RADIATION This kind of radiation cannot produce ions. These rays arent directly harmful. In fact , our lives depend heavily on these for survival Examples include infrared waves, radio waves, ultraviolet waves etc. 3. 1. X rays 2. CT scan 3. MRI scan 4. Ultrasound 5. Isotope Study 6. Angiogram and interventional studies DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING 4. High-energy electromagnetic waves Travel in straight lines Shorter wave length than visible light Able to penetrate solid materials of varying densities Capable of exposing a photographic plate (x-ray film) Used to visualize internal organs and structures of body Provide valuable means for verifying presence of illness or disease Much the same way as a camera exposes film X-Rays 5. Video 6. Computed Axial Tomography (CT, CAT) A painless, noninvasive diagnostic x-ray procedure using ionizing radiation that produces a cross-sectional image of the body. Computed Tomography (x-ray CT) is a technology that uses computer-processed x- rays to produce tomographic images of specific areas of the scanned object, allowing the user to see what is inside it without cutting it open. 7. CT Scan 8. Video 9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a scan used for a medical imaging procedure. An MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to take pictures of the body's interior. An MRI is used to investigate or diagnose conditions such as tumours, joint or spinal injuries or diseases, soft tissue such as organs and muscles without the use of radiation . 10. MRI -Scan 11. Video 12. Noninvasive procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into the body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patients skin, Sound waves are reflected back into the transducer and are interpreted by a computer that converts waves to a composite picture form. Ultrasonography (Ultrasound) 13. Ultrasound machine 14. Isotope scanning Scanning of specific parts of the body with a gamma camera after an intravenous injection of a radionuclide material, which is absorbed by the area to be studied The image of the area being studied is displayed by recording the concentration or collection of a radioactive substance specifically drawn to that area 15. 18 Radioactive Iodine Uptake Eg: An examination that determines the position, size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radio-nuclear scanning Image of the thyroid is recorded and visualized after a radioactive substance is given 16. Radioactive Iodine Uptake conti.. 17. 20 Is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers. This is traditionally done by injecting a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel and imaging using X-ray based techniques such as fluoroscopy. Angiography 18. Coronary angiography showing critical, high-grade narrowing of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery Normal coronary angiography 19. Interventional radiology is to diagnose and treat patients using the least invasive techniques currently available in order to minimize risk to the patient and improve health outcomes. These procedures have less risk, less pain and less recovery time compared to open surgery. Interventional Radiology 20. Interventional radiology mainly used for treatment of disorders like Vascular Varicose veins Peripheral artery disease (PAD) Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) Pulmonary embolism Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) Acute limb ischemia Acute mesenteric ischemia Arterio -venous malformations (AVMs 21. Oncologic Liver cancer Lung cancer Kidney Cancer Bone Cancer Breast Cancer Prostate Cancer Neurologic Stroke Carotid artery stenosis Multiple Sclerosis Spine Hepatobiliary Renal etc. 22. Angioplasty