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Task 4: Editing

Unit 1, 16, 24Task 4: Editing By Jack kilminster

Purpose of editing The purpose of editing is when, someone edits a video using different techniques and skills to explain a story through the passage of different scenes, in their own vision. There are many aspects to editing such as, its used to piece together raw footage, by using different aspects such as cutting, altering or annotating, ETC. These functions are used such as many others to put together scenes to create different videos, these story's implying a message can be linear/ non linear depending on the video that the producers are makingSome example of linear and non linear videos are of the followingMichael Jacksons thriller video is in chronological order through out the story so it is linear, compared to maroon 5s video Payphone which is non linear as it is not in chronological order as it has flashbacks to the story he is telling to show how he ended up like this ,or a movie example of non linear is the movie Memento (2000). Most movies or videos are in chronological order, and non linear movies/videos are not as big as linear movies as most story's are chronological

Editing is a technique used to piece together scenes in usually a logic order to tell a story/ message which they want to get a cross When creating a story there are key themes that need to be looked into and included to making a successful video or movie.So for example the video must have a story line, which is the plot/ background of the story. The story also must have an arrangement of events, that reveal and complete the storyline, which also provides the overall message of the story. This is the narrative side of the plot which all videos should include. The storyline also has different options in which it can end the video or movie, these options are a open-ended storyline, which is a cliff hanger leaving the audience in a bewilderment, as they will not know what happens until the next episode or movie. Another way of ended a movie is a closed story line were the plot or story line finishes and there is no more left to carry on with as the story is finished and the message broadcasted from the theme and story has been completed. An example of a open-end storyline is the series the walking dead , this is an example of as open-end storyline as at the of season 6 where we currently are. The story ends with a very dramatic cliff hanger which really leaves the viewer on the edge, then left with the thirst to know what happens next. An example of a closed story line is the movie the god father part three, this is a closed story line as it has nothing more to explain about its message or anything more to go forward with in the story.Principals of editing

Another principal of editing is combination of shots, combination of shots is a technique editors, they bring the viewer in and establish setting, feeling and relationship. They do this by combining a mixture of shot types and angles. These shots include, extreme long shot, a long shot, a medium shot, a close up and a extreme close-up, there ae other shots also such as birds eye view, high angle, eye level, low angle and oblique/ canted angle. All these shots and angles represent a different way on viewing the scene or the main actors in the scene. But they must be in a specific order otherwise it can disorientate the viewer for example it would have to be a extreme long shot, then long shot, then a medium shot etc. A good example of a scene which includes a good combination of shots to draw in the viewer is the scene In X-Men days of the future past were the scene is slowed down to show how quick sliver saves everyone in the scene with him.Another is creating pace while editing in a film is where a films speeds up or slows down certain parts of the film. Pace changes the way the audiences view films and make them understand it in different ways. An example of films that would use a fast pace would be action films such as fast and furious, a car chase or some sort of running scene would be included where fast pace would be relevant. To the create a fast pace scene, shots are cut quickly and move to other different shots to create the feeling of pace. A slower pace would be used in a drama/love story type of film such as rocky 3 in the scene were he takes on clubber Lang the scene slows down showing the intensity rising. This allows the audience to see and understand the scene and characters fully without getting distracted by quick cut shots. This is done by having longer shots in a scene.

The last principal is the 180 rule, the 180 degree rule states that when filming a scene or video, the camera or cameras should remain the same side of this imaginary line, this line is drawn perpendicular to the cameras view point in the establishing shot of the scene, an example of this is two people facing each other having a conversation, is the camera is facing them from one side the camera should not travel to the other side ( the two people switching sides in the scene) because this will disorientate the viewer, the only time this rule can be broken is when during the process of the switch of sides the shot shows the view point of the camera moving to the other side, so it does not disorientate the viewer. Or to show effect like in the movie the shinning, the rule is broken here to show Slowly how Jack slowly starts to loose his mind and then becomes possessed by the evil, demonic presence in the hotel. . The same applies in a football match the camera view when watching the game will always stay on the same side otherwise the viewer will get disorientated and not know what's going on. An example of how the 180 degree is supposed to be followed is in the movie kinsman with the scene of Harrys death with the stand off between him and Samuel. L . Jackson, as the camera does not break the 180 degree rule

Principals of editing

Editing techniques There are many different editing techniques involved editing, and they have to be precisely looked into carefully to make sure that there are no mistakes when making a movie, video or episode. These techniques are. Continuity editing, which Is making sure that props, clothing, actions etc. are all the same when crossing over into the next scene but sometimes this doesnt always go to plan. In the movie the dark knight, the scene fails as the continuity of editing is not looked at, as when the scene changes what Harvey has on his pillow is no longer there.Another is match on action, this were action begins in one scene has to carry on in beginning of the next. So an example is the movie captain America civil war in the part were the major battles of the two sides of the avengers battle, over what they both believe is correct, this scene is a good example of match on action as the fighting occurring in one scene carries on and unfolds in the next. Another is parallel editing which is when during a movie the scene cuts between two or more storylines, which are occurring at the same time, but in different places. An example of parallel editing is in the movie silence of the lambs and American sniper as both movies have scenes were two storylines are happening at once.

Other examples of editing techniques include things like cutaways, which are shots cutting away from the main subject, to show other things happening in the scene around it. For example in the movie seed of chucky this technique is used in most scenes, in this scene its used to show the surrounding reaction of what chucky has done.Jump cuts are also used in editing but not a common thing that is used in videos as there is a certain way of using them , an example of a jump cut is in the movie the ring when she leaves the TV, the jump cut is included to speed up her movement towards him.Other cuts include match cut and graphic match cut, these are were an action that is shown in one scene will then be repeated in a similar fashion in the next scene. So an example of this is in the matrix, in the part of the movie were neo and trinity are trying to save Morpheus, this part includes lots of match cuts as there is a lot of action in the scenes, as the action begins in one scene it then carries on and ends in the next. Graphic match cut is very similar but instead of actions by people, it is of objects, so an object transforms over the process of one scene to the next scene.

Editing techniques

Editing techniques Shot reverse shot, is another technique and is were the camera shots switch from character A looking at character B, to character B looking at character A. An example of this is spider man were you have the green goblin having a conversation with himself through a mirror. Another is wipes, a wipe is were the subsequent scene wipes over the previous scene.There is also fade In/fade out and dissolve. Fade in fade In out is a gradual transition from one shot to the next, an example one darkens the other brightens, a movie example of this is in lord of the rings