Geschiedenis german nationalism

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  • 1. HI136 The History of Germany Lecture 1 Germanys Special Path

2.

  • Group 1: Monday 13.00-14.30
  • Room: H2.41
  • Rupert Cheyne
  • Peter Clemons
  • Jessica Davies
  • Jamie Holland
  • Olivia Hill
  • William James
  • James MacGregor
  • Claire Millar
  • Juliette Nordberg
  • Ferdinand Nyberg
  • Group 3: Tuesday 11.30-13.00
  • Room: H3.15
  • Lee Atkins
  • James Edge
  • Victoria Elton
  • Philippa Kemp
  • Benjamin Magee
  • Karla Sharp
  • Group 2: Tuesday 10.00-11.30
  • Room: H3.15
  • Joseph Billinness
  • Charlotte Dunlavey
  • Matthew Jowers
  • Christopher Luck
  • Daniel Stevens
  • Marco Wirrer
  • Group 4: Tuesday 14.00-15.30
  • Room: H2.43
  • Robert de Kort
  • Jack Donelan
  • Danielle Garrity
  • Charles Hargrave
  • Charlotte Jayaseelan
  • Alex Jackson
  • James Lower
  • Mary McCarthy
  • Nisha Patel
  • Robert Ripamonti
  • Harry Rose
  • Charlotte Rounding
  • Matthew Wright

3. What comes to mind when you think of Germany and the Germans? 4. 5. J. S. Bach (1685-1750)Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)Bertold Brecht (1898-1956) Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804)Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)Geprge Grosz (1893-1959) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Module Themes

  • The Making of the modern German state and society.
  • Germanys transformation from maverick to model state.
  • Diversity.
  • Germanys Special Path ( Sonderweg ).

11. Germanys special path ( Deutscher Sonderweg )

  • Distinctive German way to modernity which contrasts with the standard (West European, British, French) way
  • Industrialization: belated industrial revolution, several decades after that of England
  • Failed bourgeois revolution in Germany (defeat of the democratic revolution of 1848)
  • German unification not a result of the success of a liberal and democratic movement but created by the militarist Prussian state (born in war)
  • Weimar republic not accepted by large part of the population, seen as a result of the defeat and forced onto Germany by the victorious Entente
  • Continuous dominance of antidemocratic, reactionary elites (ostelbian agrarians, estate owners and big business)
  • Traditions of Prussian militarism
  • Culminating in: Third Reich, seen as logical result of the German special path

12. The Holy Roman Empire, 800-1806

  • The loose association of territories that preceded the creation of the modern German state. (Tim Kirk)
  • Usually considered to have come into being with the coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor of the Romans in 800, but the term Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation ( Heiliges R misches Reich deutscher Nation ) was formally adopted in 1512.
  • At its greatest extent it encompassed modern-day Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Holland, Belgium and parts of France and Italy.
  • After the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) which ended the Thirty Years War there were still 234 territories and 51 Imperial Cities.
  • The territories that made up the HRE were self-governing, but their sovereigns owed allegiance to the Emperor, who was elected by 7 Elector-Princes (3 ecclesiastical, 4 secular).
  • Rudolf von Habsburg, Duke of Austria, became Emperor in 1273. His descendents ruled the Empire off and on until it was abolished. From the 15 thCentury there were no non-Habsburg Emperors.
  • The Holy Roman Empire was formally dissolved on 6 August 1806 by the Treaty of Pressburg, after the defeat of Austria by Napoleon.

13. The Holy Roman Empire in 1789 14. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, 1789-1815

  • Exported the principles of liberty, equality and brotherhood ( Libert ,galit ,fraternit )
  • Broke the power of the old Monarchical regimes and states in Central Europe.
  • Saw the emergence of the idea of Nationalism the term first appeared in the writings of the Jesuit Abb Barruel in 1798
  • The Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars witnessed the first upsurge of Nationalism in European history, partly under the inspiration of the French armies and message of liberation, partly in reaction against those armies and the realities of occupation and oppression.Robert Gildea,Barricades and Borders: Europe 1800-1914(Oxford: OUP, 1996)

15. Effects on Germany

  • German nationalists, liberals and Romantics initially welcomed the French revolution and saw the French armies as liberators.
  • 1805: Defeat of Austria at the Battle of Austerlitz
  • 1806: Defeat of Prussia at the twin battles of Jena & Auerstadt
  • Napoleonic re-ordering of Germany: Holy Roman Empire abolished
  • Number of states reduced to 39
  • Puppet rulers installed in German states
  • Confederation of the Rhine formed
  • French legal system imposed
  • Napoleons German campaigns and the experience of occupation turned popular and liberal nationalist sentiment against Napoleon.

16. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814)

  • Dismissed as professor of philosophy at the University of Jena in 1799 for his support of the French Revolution.
  • Addresses to the German Nation(1807-08): Argued that France now represented despotism and that it was therefore up to the German nation to be the champion of liberty. TheVolk(people) should thus rise up and drive out the invader.

17. Effects on Germany

  • German nationalists, liberals and Romantics initially welcomed the French revolution and saw the French armies as liberators.
  • 1805: Defeat of Austria at the Battle of Austerlitz
  • 1806: Defeat of Prussia at the twin battles of Jena & Auerstadt
  • Napoleonic re-ordering of Germany: Holy Roman Empire abolished
  • Number of states reduced to 39
  • Puppet rulers installed in German states
  • Confederation of the Rhine formed
  • French legal system imposed
  • Napoleons German campaigns and the experience of occupation turned popular and liberal nationalist sentiment against Napoleon.
  • 1813-14: Wars of Liberation.

18. The Congress of Vienna, 1814-15

  • Restored deposed monarchs to their thrones and sought to re-establish theancien r gimein Europe.
  • Granted Prussia extensive territory in the Rhineland the population of the Kingdom of Prussia doubled overnight.
  • Established the German Confederation.

19. 20. The German Confederation

  • Made up of 39 German States
  • Designed to help preserve the status quo rather than as a basis for a United Germany.
  • The Austrian Chancellor Metternich saw it as a means of preserving Austrian dominance over Germany.
  • The Federal Diet (parliament) met at Frankfurt and was made up of (unelected) representatives of all the states. It was always chaired by the Austrian representative. In theory the Diet could appoint ambassadors, negotiate treaties on behalf of members and organize a Federal Army. In practice little was ever done because the unanimous agreement of all 39 states was required.

21. What is a Nation?

  • Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803): TheVolk(nation or race) is the decisive determinant of human identity. The nation is therefore identified not with the state (which is an artificial body), but with the organic body of theVolk .
  • Johann Goethe (1749-1832): No need for a nation-state Germany was a cultural community like Ancient Greece.
  • Geog Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831): An individual only achieved their full potential through service to the state.
  • German nationalism based on the idea of a racial/cultural community with shared language, history, traditions, myths etc.

22.

  • A nation can therefore be defined as
  • a named human population
  • sharing an historic territory,
  • common myths and historical memories,
  • a mass public culture,
  • a common economy
  • and common legal rights and duties for all members .
  • Anthony D. Smith,National Identity(Reno, Las Vegas, London) 1991, p. 14.

23. Where is Germany?

  • Both The Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire incorporated territory outside the German Confederation and non-German citizens.
  • Grossdeutschland(Greater Germany) would incorporate the German-speaking parts of the Austrian Empire and would maintain Catholic Austrias leadership of Germany.
  • Kleindeutschland(Little Germany) would exclude Austria