Nelson Mandela

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Text of Nelson Mandela

  • 1. Biography ofNelson Mandela Sara Cruz Sierra 2B

2. *Summary of his life.*Early life.*Political activity.*Presidency of South Africa.*Marriage and family.*Tributes to Nelson Mandela. 3. *Summary of his lifeNelson Mandela was born 18 july of 1918 inMvezo,South Africa.Served As Present of South Africa from 1994to 1999 and was the first South Africanpresident to be elected in a fullyrepresentative democratic election.Mandela served 27 years in prison, spendingmany of these years on Robben Island.Following his release from prison on 11February 1990, Mandela led his party in thenegotiations that led to multi-racialdemocracy in 1994. As president, hefrequently gave priority to reconciliation,while introducing policies aimed atcombating poverty and inequality in SouthAfrica.In South Africa, Mandela is often known as Madiba, his father clan name.Mandela has received more than 250 awards over four decades, includingthe 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. 4. *Early lifeNelson Mandela belongs to acadet branch oftheThembudynasty, whichreigns intheTranskei Region of South AfricasEasternCape Province.He was born in Mvezo, a smallvillage located in the district ofUmtata.Mandelas father,Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa,served aschief of the town of Mvezo.He movedhis family toQunu . Mandelas father had fourwives, with whom he fathered thirteen children(four boys and nine girls).Mandela was born tohis third wife, Nosekeni Fanny.Mandela spentmuch of his childhood.Rolihlahla Mandela became the first member of his family to attend aschool, where his teacher Miss Mdingane gave him the English name"Nelson". 5. When Mandela was nine, his father died of tuberculosis, andtheregent , Jongintaba, became hisguardian.Mandela attendedaWesleyan mission school located next to the palace of the regent.Following Thembu custom, he was initiated at age sixteen, andattended Clarkebury Boarding Institute.Mandela completed hisJunior Certificatein two years, instead of the usualthree.Designated to inherit his fathers position as a privy councillor,in 1937 Mandela moved toHealdtown,the Wesleyan college inFortBeaufort which most Themburoyaltyattended.At nineteen, he tookan interest in boxing and running at the school.Afterenrolling, Mandela began to study for a Bachelor of Arts attheFort Hare University, where he metOliver Tambo.Tambo andMandela became lifelong friends and colleagues. 6. *Political activity After the 1948 election victory of the Afrikaner-dominated National Party, which supported the apartheid policy of racial segregation,Mandela began actively participating in politics.During this time, Mandela and fellow lawyer Oliver Tambo operated the law firm of Mandela and Tambo. Mahatma Gandhi influenced Mandelas approach, and subsequently the methods of succeeding generations of South African anti-apartheid activists.Mandela later took part in the 2930 January 2007 conference in New Delhi marking the 100th anniversary of Gandhis introduction of satyagraha in South Africa. Initially committed to nonviolent resistance, Mandela and 150 others were arrested on 5 December 1956 and charged with treason. From 19521959, a new class of black activists known as the Africanists disrupted ANC activities in the townships. 7. The Africanists ridiculed the 1955Freedom Charter KliptownConference for the concession ofthe 100,000-strong ANC to just asingle vote in a Congressionalalliance. In 1959, the ANC lost itsmost militant support when mostof the Africanists, with financialsupport from Ghana andsignificant political support fromthe Transvaal-based Basotho,broke away to form the PanAfricanist Congress (PAC) under the direction of Robert Sobukwe andPotlako Leballo. 8. *Presidency of South Africa. South Africas first multi-racial elections in which full enfranchisement was grantedwere held on 27 April 1994. The ANC won 62% of the votes in the election. During the course of his presidency, a widerange of progressive social reforms were enacted by Mandelas government, aimed at reducing long entrenched social andeconomic inequalities in South Africa.Amongst the measures carried out byMandela and this are some ministers included:*The introduction of free health care.*The launching of the Reconstruction andDevelopment Programme. *The introduction of parity in grants. *An expansion of reproductive health services. *The introduction of child support grants (1998) to alleviate child poverty. *The connection of 3 million people to telephone lines. *The bringing of 1 million children into the education system. *The upgrading or construction of 500 clinics. 9. *The connection of 2 millionpeople to the electricity grid.*The construction of 750,000houses, housing nearly 3million people in the process.*The extension of wateraccess to 3 million people.*The introduction ofcompulsory schooling forAfrican children between sixand fourteen years.*The provision of free mealsfor between 3 to 5 millionschool children.*The provision of free meals for between 3 to 5 million school children.*The launching of the National Drug Policy in 1996 to improve access toessential medicines. 10. *Marriage and family.Mandela has been married threetimes, has fathered six children, hastwenty grandchildren, and a growingnumber of great-grandchildren. He isgrandfather to Chief Mandla Mandela.Mandelas first marriage was to EvelynNtoko Mase.Mandelas second wife,Winnie Madikizela-Mandela.Mandela was remarried, on his 80th birthday in 1998, to Graa Machel. 11. *Tributes to Nelson Mandela.The statue of Mandela in ParliamentSquare, London. 12. Nelson Mandela Square,Sandton,Johannesburg. 13. Nelson Mandela Gardens in Leeds. 14. Nelson Mandela Bridge in Johannesburg.