Climate Change significant change in the average weather that a given region experiences.
The average weather may includeaverage temperature, precipitation and wind patterns.
In environmental policy, refers to changes in modern climate.
21st century are dependent of future emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols.
SRES global average warming projections range from 1.4 to 5.8 C (by 2100 to 1990)
- Highest emitter of greenhouse gases per capita in the developed world
(coal releases CO 2 )
-It is one of the countries most at risk from climate change (Stern report)
Causes : agriculture sector and long coastline.
For this the adaptation is essential to cope with unavoidable climate changes (by Australians for Australians in each local situation)
SCENARIOS FOR THE AUSTRALIAN REGION
The Australian region has varied climates and ecosystems (deserts, rangelands, rainforests, coral reefs and alpine areas)
Climatestrongly influenced by the surrounding oceans.
-Changes in the tropical cyclones could cause variations in return periods locally.
-Annual average temperatures Rise 1.6C by 2030, and 5C by 2070, relative to 1990. (due to potential evaporation and heatwaves, and fewer frosts)
-In the northern and eastern Australia could show an variations in:
Rainfall at a given locality
Increases in potential evaporation
Droughts more severe
Rise sea level
Higher the stabilised carbon dioxide concentrations, the greater would be the impacts and risks, especially beyond 2100.
Australia is vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation projected for the next 50 to 100 years because:
-extensive arid and semi-arid areas SE & SWdroughts
-relatively high rainfall variability from year to year
-existing pressures on water supply in many areas
-high fire risk
-high concentration of population in coastal areas Erosion & Inundation8- 88 cm
-economy strongly dependent on world commodity prices
5. Fig.1. Changes of average annual warming and rainfall. 6. - tourism dependent on the health of fragile ecosystems invasion by exotic animal and plant species introduced. SW & Western AustraliaEndangered species or extinct Great Barrier ReefBleaching & substantial losses of species associated Lord Howe Islandextinction ( reef-fringed lagoon 94 spp, 490 fish species) Inland waters80% loss of freshwater wetlands/floods/rising salinity 7. Fig.2. Change influences recruitment of some fish species and the incidence of toxic algal blooms. 8. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN NEW SOUTH WALES STATE Fig.3. Australian States 9. Tabla.1. Future New South Wales scenarios Source : Future Climate Change in Australia- CSIRO 2002 . 10.
-Become warmer, with more hot days and fewer cold nights
-Droughts will become more frequent and more severegreater fire risk
-Water resources will be further stressed due to projected growth in demand and climate-driven changes in supply for irrigation, cities, industry and environmental flows.
-Significant impact on snow cover in the Snowy Mountains 34% - 97% reduction by 2050 in the areas that have more than 60 days snow cover.
-The projected increased incidence of bushfires and susceptibility of eucalyptus trees to climate change will threaten biodiversity in the Blue Mountains.
-Coastal erosion Byron Bay, Wamberal and Collaroy/ Narrabeen
-Increased storm surges and sea level
-Tropical Cyclones may track further south and hit the northern NSW coast.