300 Biology Responses to the Environment

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NCEA Level 3


  • 1. Biology 3.3Responses totheEnvironmentAS 916035 External CreditsMs Gibellini 2014

2. Achievement StandardDemonstrate understanding involves describing plant and animal responses totheir external environment. The description includes: the process(es) within each response and/or the adaptive advantageprovided for the organism in relation to its ecological niche.Demonstrate in-depth understanding involves using biological ideas to explain: how the responses occur why the responses provide an adaptive advantage for the organism inrelation to its ecological niche.Responses are selected from those relating to: orientation in space (tropisms, nastic responses, taxes, kineses, homing,migration) orientation in time (annual, daily, lunar, tidal rhythms) interspecific relationships (competition for resources, mutualism,exploitation including herbivory, predation, and parasitism) intraspecific relationships (competition for resources, territoriality,hierarchical behaviour, cooperative interactions, reproductivebehaviours). External environment will include both biotic and abiotic factors. 3. Exam SpecificationsCandidates should be familiar with graphical andtabulated data.Candidates should be familiar with the followingterms: agonistic behavior endogenous home range auxin entrainment kin selection biological clock exogenous photoperiodism cooperative breeding free running periodzeitgeber. courtship 4. Topic Outline The Basics abiotic, biotic, ecological niche How/Why Respond Responses in space Responses in time Interspecfic relationships Intra specific relations 5. The Basics Abiotic non living Temperature Light intensity Moisture Substrate Chemicals/pH Biotic Predators Prey Courtship andmating behaviours 6. Online Activities1. Watch the following clips, complete the quizzes.http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/30707-assignment-discovery-abiotic-and-biotic-factors-video.htmhttp://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-environment-levels-of-ecology-and-ecosystems.html#transcripthttp://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/ecosystems-habitats-and-ecological-niches.html#lessonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1pp_7-yTN42. Read through the following pagehttp://www2.ccsd.ws/sbfaculty/team8e/jecole/Science/abiotic_vs_.htmhttp://sciencebitz.com/?page_id=233. Complete the following activity to test your understandinghttp://www.pbslearningmedia.org/asset/lsps07_int_ecosystem/ 7. The Basicso Ecological niche Where an organism lives, what it eats, what eats it,when it is active, adaptations it has to survive Realised nicheWhere the organism is actually found due to limitingfactors competition, lack of resources Fundamental nicheWhere the organism could potentially be found 8. Why Respond? Why respond? - put your ideas onto the followingpadlet brainstormhttp://padlet.com/wall/ResponseAdvantage Adaptive Advantage - directly or indirectly helpsindividual's survive or reproduce What is the adaptive advantage of being able torespond to the environment? Get maximum sunlight for photosynthesis Grow roots towards nutrients and water source Move to warmer surroundings Hide when its daylight or too cold conserve energy 9. Online Activities1. Watch the following clip, read the information and answerthe quizhttp://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/interspecific-competition-competitive-exclusion-niche-differentiation.html#lessonhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_behavior_(ecology)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SDzjctfmAwhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h6-evXswaQshttps://docs.google.com/a/cloud.waimea.school.nz/presentation/d/1g_bW-21tsNc_P3WpuJQzwRCX9jSbGdASs8FfBs1KOj8/edit#slide=id.p14 10. The BasicsStimulus: Anything that causes anorganism to react. Cause Stimulus : singular Stimuli: pluralResponse: Any change an organismmakes as a result of a changein the environment Effect 11. Stimulus Photo light Geo gravity Hydro water Chemo chemicals Thigmo touch Helio sunlight Thermo temperature 12. How do organism detectchange Animals use their senses Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Plants use chemicals and hormones todetect changes in their environment 13. How do animals respond?Innate- Born with behaviour- Spiders spinning a webLearned- Taught behaviour over time- Chimps using stick to get ants froma log 14. Learnt and Innate Human BehavioursAim:To unlearn an innate behaviourMethod:1. Blow across the eye of your partner What happens? Did the person do this consciously?What is the adaptive advantage of this behaviour?2. Repeat (blowing across eye) at 30 sec intervals,record how many times you do it before theperson learns not to react What is the stimulus? What is the response? What isthe adaptive advantage of unlearning this innatebehaviour? 15. Online Activities1. Watch the following clipshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/behaviour/revision/1/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dj08D-tllHs&ytsession=ZQbvpv4AUPLGOBbJljtb6DG2FrCZJPxzxDW5YtfGGNIhsIyB8S4fQCaHXUHkNlBLAeB7w80bjaDrWD-56NmwP3YkwQszdokqh1YgSS_VKN-ZJQGhAJUTfjyLTNZXMqqQbPmbwblOTh75NQ5j60AJsiTsuXsT1L9SpCdYXHtimTSUmgWwD5lRmwd3fWro3ZDbEw2fQczgE_02TnAa4DXR2OGdJ-X84qSKtm6jPGanzVXtVS2CYxLICjB4hCT3cD6ToQwdd0w8hAHifr0pfLgdNQhttp://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/innate-behavior-reflexes-kineses-and-taxes.html#lessonhttp://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/learned-behavior-imprinting-habituation-and-conditioning.html#lessonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OJsE6KneH4chttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xq4ahmk4_HE2. Read the following informationhttp://click4biology.info/c4b/e/e3.htm#1http://www.ib.bioninja.com.au/options/option-e-neurobiology-and-2/e3-innate-and-learned-behav.html 16. Behaviour Types1. What are the differences between innate and learned behaviour?Defn. ExamplesLearnedInnate2. What is the adaptive advantage of:- having innate behaviours?- being able to learn behaviour?http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/behaviour/activity/http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/behaviour/quiz/q23631376/ 17. How do Plants Respond?Growth movements slowchange in size/shape of cellsControlled by hormonesTurgor movementsFaster, reversibleWater content of cells changes 18. Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SDzjctfmAw 19. Plants use a range of hormones to respond to stimuli:Hormone Where is itmadeEffect site Action EffectAuxinGibberelinCytokininsAbscisic acid(ABA)EthyleneGoogle doc of tables 20. Plants use a range of hormones to respond to stimuli:Hormone Where Effect site Action EffectAuxin Shoot tip(meristem)GrowingregionsCell elongationdue to turgorpressureTip bends towardsstimulusGibberelin Fruits, seeds,growing buds& stemsWhole plant Growth of cellsBreaking ofdormancyGrowth, germinationof seeds, flowering,fruit growthCytokinins Roots & fruit Branch & leafbudsPromotes celldivision anddifferentiationGrowth of lateralbranchesAbscisic acid(ABA)Chloroplasts Where fruit &leaves join toplant. SeedInhibits growth Causes fruit & leavesto fall from treeCloses stomataPromotes seeddormancyEthylene Ripening fruit CellularmetabolismIncreases sugar infruitRipens fruit & leavesand causes it to fall 21. Online Activities1. Watch the following video, read the text, complete the quizhttps://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/plant-hormones-chemical-control-of-growth-and-reproduction.html#lessonhttp://www.rooting-hormones.com/Video_auxinuse.htmhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/responses_to_environment/planthormonesrev1.shtmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/responses_to_environment/planthormones/quiz/q72974343/http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/responses_to_environment/planthormones/quiz/q16929046/ 22. Plant Responses Vernalisation flowering or germination after a cold snap Ensures flowering/germination in spring Dormancy Arrested (slowed) plant growth Ensures survival during winter/summer drought Abscission Leaf fall Prevents leaves freezing in winter 23. Jellybeans and AuxinAim: To demonstrate effects of auxin in the shoot.Method:1. Create a shoot with small jellybeans (5 on each side) and half amarshmallow at the top (apical meristem) take a photo2. When exposed to light lollie pop, IAA (choc chips) is released from themarshmallow (apical meristem) and travels to the dark side of the stem take a photo3. The IAA (choc chips) is absorbed into the cells on the dark side, causingthese cells to enlargeslowly remove the choc chips and replace 3 smalljelly beans with large ones on the side opposite to sun one at a time,ensuring the top and bottoms of jellybeans are always touching and themiddle, take a photo each time4. Keep the jellybeans ALL touching and the top two jellybeans ending atthe same point with the marshmallow on the top.Results:5. What happens to the direction of growth? Why? 24. IAA There are many types of Auxins Indole Acetic Acid is involved with cellelongation 25. Auxin Auxin is a plant hormone whichcauses cells to elongate http://www.kscience.co.uk/animations/auxin.htm Auxin is made in the tip, and movesdown the dark side of the shoot,causing the shoot to bend towardsthe stimulus Auxin is soluble in water, but notmica or glass Auxin also moves with gravity tolower side causing elongation andshoots to grow up out of soil 26. Auxin ExperimentsExperiment 1: Effect of IAA on cell elongation in theshoots Rub IAA onto left side of one set of shoots, take beforeand after photos compare Rub IAA onto the right side of a different set of shoots,take before and after photos compareExperiment 2: Effect of IAA on cells in the direction ofgrowth in the roots Soak and grow bean shoots and roots, too 3 cm length Rub IAA onto left side of one set of roots, take beforeand after photos compare Rub IAA onto the right side of a different set of roots,take before and after photos compare 27. Stem CuttingsAim: Investigate the effect of rooting hormone on therate of root development.Method: (tissue culturing) see worksheet1. Sterilize utensils, workspace, containers(the trick isto keep things as sterile as possible so that yougrow plant tissue and not bacteria or fungi.)2. Take cutting, sterilize cutting3. Dip cutting in rooting hormone4. Place one in agar with rooting hormone, and theother in agar without hormone (label!) 28. Auxin in the Root Auxin falls with gravity tothe lower side of theshoot and root In the shoot it causes cellelongation, shoot growsup towards the light In the root it stops thecells elongating, andtherefore the root bendsdown towards the soiland water 29. Auxin MovementAim: To investigate the movement of auxinMethod:1. Set up a box with three plants in2. Plant A cut the tip off (about 2cm)3. Plant B cover the tip with tin foil4. Plant C leave as is5. Put a hole in the box on one side and angle towardslight6. Take a photo after 5 daysResults:Describe what and why each tip responded as it did.What is the adaptive advantage of this type of response?What is the stimulus causing the response? What is thename given to this type of response? 30. Explain what is happening in each experiment andwhy. 31. Page 105:When auxin conc. In roots gets to above__________ppm of auxin the cell growth is_____________When auxin conc. In shoots gets to ________ ppm ofauxin the cell growth is ___________ up until_______ppm when the growth is rapidly inhibited Vine curls around trunk, auxin migrates to nontouching side of vine, causing cell elongation andthe vine curves towards trunk and around it 32. Apical Dominance High concentration of axuin in tip (apical meristem)of tree prevents growth Concentration decreases towards base of tree Adaptive advantage because the top leaves donot shade the leaves underneath Resulting in Xmas tree shape 33. Online ActivitiesComplete the prequiz, watch and read the animation, complete the post quiz didyou improve?http://kisdwebs.katyisd.org/campuses/MRHS/teacherweb/hallk/Teacher%20Documents/AP%20Biology%20Materials/Plants/Plant%20Hormones/39_A01s.swfhttp://generalhorticulture.tamu.edu/pracexam/HotPotatoExam/Exam2/pracex2c.htmhttp://leavingbio.net/plant%20responses.htmhttp://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-hormones-and-their-functions.htmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway/understanding_organisms/control_plant_growthrev2.shtmlhttp://www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/hormones/horm9.cfmhttp://www.slideshare.net/mazz4/plant-responses-15051190http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/examcentre.aspx?id=221http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp38/3802002.html 34. NCEA QuestionPadlet your answer here 35. Tropisms Plants grow in response to stimuli Growth towards positive Growth away from negative 36. Tropic ResponsesExperiment 1: Phototropic ResponsesAim: To investigate phototropic responses in bean plantsMethod:1. Soak beans over night to encourage germination2. Celleotape bean into small box3. Cut a hole to let the light in on one side of the box4. Leave for 5 days open and investigateResults:What is the adaptive advantage of this type of response?What is the stimulus causing the response? What is thename given to this type of response? 37. Experiment 2: Geotropic ResponsesAim: To investigate the geotropic responses in beanplants.Method:1. Soak beans over night to encourage germination2. Scellotape bean into petri dish3. Blue tack dish vertically onto the wall4. Leave for 5 days take a photograph5. Turn petri dish 1806. Leave for 5 days take a photographResults:What is the adaptive advantage of this type ofresponse? What is the stimulus causing the response?What is the name given to this type of response? 38. Tropisms1. Why do plants need to respond to the environment?2. What things can stimulate plants to respond?3. What does tropos mean?4. Give a definition and example of the following (tryand find a photo to insert as well)- Table as google doc remember to make a copy!Tropism Definition Stimulus Example Picture AdvantagePhototropismChemotropismGravitropismThigmotropismHydrotropismHeliotropism 39. Tropisms1. Why do plants need to respond to the environment?- so they can survive, grow and reproduce, make themost of resources2. What things can stimulate plants to respond?- gravity, light, chemicals, touch, water3. What does tropos mean?- Turn 40. Tropism Definition Stimulus Example Picture AdvantagePhototropism Growth inresponse to lightLight Sunflower movingto face the sunIncreased light soincreasedphotosynthesisChemotropism Growth inresponse tochemicalsChemicals Pollen tubegrowing towardsovariesPollen can fertilizeegg in safe protectedplace forreproductionGravitropism Growth responseto gravityGravity Roots growingdown into theground, shootsgrowing upagainst gravityRoots gainanchorage, growthtowards water,Shoots grow towardslight for p/sThigmotropism Growth responseto touchHard surface Grape vinecurling around astakeGrowth up towardsthe light forphotosynthesisHydrotropism Growth responseto waterWater Willow rootsgrowing...