Luz rello - Ph.D. Thesis presentation - DysWebxia: A Text Accessibility Model for People with Dyslexia

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Ph.D. Presentation Title: DysWebxia: A Text Accessibility Model for People with Dyslexia Author: Luz Rello Advisors: Ricardo Baeza-Yates and Horacio Saggion Abstract: Worldwide, 10% of the population has dyslexia, a cognitive disability that reduces readability and comprehension of written information. The goal of this thesis is to make text more accessible for people with dyslexia by combining human computer interaction validation methods and natural language processing techniques. In the initial phase of this study we examined how people with dyslexia identify errors in written text. Their written errors were analyzed and used to estimate the presence of text written by individuals with dyslexia in the Web. After concluding that dyslexic errors relate to presentation and content features of text, we carried out a set of experiments using eye tracking to determine the conditions that led to improved readability and comprehension. After finding the relevant parameters for text presentation and content modification, we implemented a lexical simplification system. Finally, the results of the investigation and the resources created, lead to a model, DysWebxia, that proposes a set of recommendations that have been successfully integrated in four applications.

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  • Outline Ricardo Baeza-Yates Web Research Group Universitat Pompeu Fabra & Yahoo Labs Barcelona DysWebxia: A Text Accessibility Model for People with Dyslexia Advisors: PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Luz Rello Horacio Saggion Natural Language Processing Group Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona
  • OutlineOutline What? ! Why? Goal ! Motivation Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration How? Methodology PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Applications
  • OutlineMain Goal Improve Digital Accessibility People with Dyslexia PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineSecondary Goals To have a deeper understanding of dyslexia by analyzing how people with dyslexia read and write, using their misspelling errors as a starting point. ! To nd out the best text presentation parameters which benet the reading performance readability and comprehension of people with dyslexia. ! To nd out the text content modications that benet the reading performance of people with dyslexia. ! To propose a set of recommendations combining the positive results, and integrate them in reading applications for people with dyslexia. PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineWhy? Dyslexia is a learning disability characterized by diculties with accurate word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities ! ! ! As side eect, this impedes the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Children with dyslexia tend to show signs of depression and low self- esteem [Vellutino et al., 2004] [International Association of Dyslexia, 2011][Shaywitz, 2008] PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • Outline Neurological origin Language specic manifestations 8.6% in Spanish (Canary Islands) 11.8% in Spanish (Murcia) 10 - 17.5% of the USA population 10.8% English speaking children How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Most frequent signal 15.2% in Europe 25% in Spain 4 of 6 cases are related to dyslexia Frequent ! ! ! ! ! Universal ! ! ! ! School Failure Dyslexia [International Dyslexia Association, 2011] [European Commission, 2011] [Eurostat, 2011] [Spanish Federation of Dyslexia, 2008] [Vellutino et al., 2004] [Brunswick, 2010] [Jimnez et al. 2009] [Carrillo et al. 2011] [National Academy of Sciences, 1987] [Shaywitz et al. 1992] PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • Outline Information access Information democratization Benets people without dyslexia Benets others users, e.g. low vision How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Digital format eBook sales increased by 115.8% (January 2011) Human Right ! ! ! ! Good for Dyslexia, Useful for All ! ! ! Right Moment Dyslexia [Dixon, 2007] [McCarthy & Swierenga, 2010] [Evett & Brown, 2005] [United Nations Committee of the General Assembly, 2006] [Association of American Publishers, 2011] PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • how? A Multidisciplinary Challenge How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Which problems dyslexic people experience? Are there linguistic foundations? Linguistics Cognitive Neuroscience Natural Language Processing How NLP could help dyslexic people? How text presentation could help people with dyslexia? Human Computer Interaction Eye-trackingHow can we measure the reading performance? PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • how? A Multidisciplinary Challenge How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Eye-trackingHow can we measure the reading performance? PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineHow Do We Read? Eye Tracking! How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Every dot is a xation point PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1dRqpRi4csSee VIDEO here:
  • OutlineMethodology - Participants, Equipment Participants with Dyslexia Control Group From 23 to 56 participants Native Spanish speakers Conrmed diagnosis of dyslexia Ages ranging from 11 to 56 (average around 20 - 21 years depending on the experiment) Participants with attention decit disorder Frequent users of Internet and frequent readers Education Same number Idem ! Mapped ! ! ! ! Similar Similar ! Tobii T50 (17-inch TFT monitor) Eye-Tracker How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineMethodology Materials How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Text Presentation Controlled Comprehension Questionnaires Multiple choice tests Literal and inferential questions. Correct, partially correct and wrong answers 1 2 3 4 5 muy fcil very easy muy difcil very dicult Facilidad comprensin Ease of understandingSubjective Ratings Base Texts Same genre Similar topics Same number of sentences Same number of words Similar average word length Same number of unique named entities, foreign words and same number/ type of numerical expressions + Text modications (Independent variables) Facilidad de Comprensin PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • Outline within-subjects design between-subject design Methodology Design Qualitative Data Quantitative Data Design Dependent Variables Statistical Tests (conditions in counterbalanced order) Likert scales Eye tracking Questionnaires PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineOutline What? ! Why? Goal ! Motivation Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Applications How? Methodology PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • Outline Understanding How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • how? A Multidisciplinary Challenge How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Which problems dyslexic people experience? Are there linguistic foundations? Linguistics Cognitive Neuroscience Natural Language Processing How NLP could help dyslexic people? How text presentation could help people with dyslexia? Human Computer Interaction Eye-trackingHow can we measure the reading performance? PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • how? A Multidisciplinary Challenge How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Which problems dyslexic people experience? Are there linguistic foundations? Linguistics Cognitive Neuroscience PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineWhy Errors? How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration ! Dyslexia Studying dyslexia Diagnosing dyslexia Accessibility tools ! ! The Web Detecting spam Measuring quality Source of Knowledge Errors [Treiman, 1997] [Lindgrn & Laine, 2011] [Schulte-Krne et al. 1996] [Pedler, 2007] [Piskorski et al. 2008] [Gelman & Barletta, 2008] PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineDyslexia in the Web [Rello & Baeza-Yates, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 2012] English Spanish How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineAre there Linguistic Foundations? Written Errors by People with Dyslexia [Rello & Llisterri, LDW 1012 ] [Rello, Baeza-Yates & Llisterri, LREC 2014] How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Analysis Visual & Phonetic Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • Outline Please read this text. It is just an example but helps to underztand how we read text. A text can be legivle but this does not mean that it will be compreensible. Hence, we habe to take care about the presantation of a text as well as the lexical, syntactic, and semmantical levels of its content. How Do We Process Text? How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Test
  • Outline Demographic Questionnaire Writing/memory test Variant B Comprehension Test Comprehension Test Comprehension Test Comprehension Test Variant A Text 1: 16% errors Text 2: 16% errors Text 2: 16% errors Text 1: 16% errors Error Perception Test Error Perception Test 0 or 12/75 words (16% errors) dyslexic unique Errors priosridad presupuetsos indutricas implse [Rello & Baeza-Yates, WWW 2012 (poster)] Does Lexical Quality Matters? How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Error Awareness Dependent Measure Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineResults Lexical Quality How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 = 0.799 (p < 0.001) Group D no eects! Group N (p = 0.08) Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona [Rello & Baeza-Yates, WWW 2012 (poster)]
  • OutlineHow Fast You Can Read This? How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Olny srmat poelpe can raed tihs ! ! I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. Due to the phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a raerscheer at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, t he olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer are in the rgh it pclae. The ruslet can be a taotl mses but you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? Yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot taht slpeling was ipmorantt! Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineHow Well We Process Text? [Baeza-Yates & Rello, to be submitted, 2014] How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 How important is the order in our internal representation of words? Words with Errors 50.0 62.5 75.0 87.5 100.0 No errors 8% errors 16% errors 50% errors Without Dyslexia With Dyslexia Comprehension Score (%) Reading Time also increases Words with Errors Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineDo They See the Errors? How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1dRqpRi4csSee VIDEO here:
  • OutlineContributions How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration The presence of errors written by people with dyslexia in the text does not impact the reading performance of people with dyslexia, while it does for people without dyslexia. Normal correctly written texts present more diculties for people with dyslexia than for people without dyslexia. To the contrary, texts with jumbled letters present similarly diculties, for both, people with and without dyslexia. Lexical quality is a good indicator for text readability and comprehensibility, except for people with dyslexia. Written errors by people with dyslexia are phonetically and visually motivated. The most frequent errors involve the letter without a one-to- one correspondence between grapheme and phone. Most of the substitution errors share phonetic features and the letters tend to have certain visual features, such as mirror and rotation features. The rate of dyslexic errors is independent from the rate of spelling errors in web pages. Around 0.67% and 0.43% of the errors in the Web are dyslexic errors for English and Spanish, respectively. These rates are smaller than expected probably due to spelling correction aids. Rello L., Baeza-Yates R., and Llisterri, J. DysList: An Annotated Resource of Dyslexic Errors. In: Proc. LREC14. Reykjavik, Ice- land; 2014. p. 2631. Rello L., and Llisterri, J. There are Phonetic Patterns in Vowel Substitution Errors in Texts Written by Persons with Dyslexia. In: 21st Annual World Congress on Learning Disabilities (LDW 2012). Oviedo, Spain; 2012. p. 327338 Rello L., and Baeza-Yates R. The Presence of English and Spanish Dyslexia in the Web. New Review of Hy...