Luz rello - Ph.D. Thesis presentation - DysWebxia: A Text Accessibility Model for People with Dyslexia

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Ph.D. Presentation Title: DysWebxia: A Text Accessibility Model for People with Dyslexia Author: Luz Rello Advisors: Ricardo Baeza-Yates and Horacio Saggion Abstract: Worldwide, 10% of the population has dyslexia, a cognitive disability that reduces readability and comprehension of written information. The goal of this thesis is to make text more accessible for people with dyslexia by combining human computer interaction validation methods and natural language processing techniques. In the initial phase of this study we examined how people with dyslexia identify errors in written text. Their written errors were analyzed and used to estimate the presence of text written by individuals with dyslexia in the Web. After concluding that dyslexic errors relate to presentation and content features of text, we carried out a set of experiments using eye tracking to determine the conditions that led to improved readability and comprehension. After finding the relevant parameters for text presentation and content modification, we implemented a lexical simplification system. Finally, the results of the investigation and the resources created, lead to a model, DysWebxia, that proposes a set of recommendations that have been successfully integrated in four applications.

Text of Luz rello - Ph.D. Thesis presentation - DysWebxia: A Text Accessibility Model for People with...

  • Outline Ricardo Baeza-Yates Web Research Group Universitat Pompeu Fabra & Yahoo Labs Barcelona DysWebxia: A Text Accessibility Model for People with Dyslexia Advisors: PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Luz Rello Horacio Saggion Natural Language Processing Group Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona
  • OutlineOutline What? ! Why? Goal ! Motivation Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration How? Methodology PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Applications
  • OutlineMain Goal Improve Digital Accessibility People with Dyslexia PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineSecondary Goals To have a deeper understanding of dyslexia by analyzing how people with dyslexia read and write, using their misspelling errors as a starting point. ! To nd out the best text presentation parameters which benet the reading performance readability and comprehension of people with dyslexia. ! To nd out the text content modications that benet the reading performance of people with dyslexia. ! To propose a set of recommendations combining the positive results, and integrate them in reading applications for people with dyslexia. PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineWhy? Dyslexia is a learning disability characterized by diculties with accurate word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities ! ! ! As side eect, this impedes the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Children with dyslexia tend to show signs of depression and low self- esteem [Vellutino et al., 2004] [International Association of Dyslexia, 2011][Shaywitz, 2008] PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • Outline Neurological origin Language specic manifestations 8.6% in Spanish (Canary Islands) 11.8% in Spanish (Murcia) 10 - 17.5% of the USA population 10.8% English speaking children How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Most frequent signal 15.2% in Europe 25% in Spain 4 of 6 cases are related to dyslexia Frequent ! ! ! ! ! Universal ! ! ! ! School Failure Dyslexia [International Dyslexia Association, 2011] [European Commission, 2011] [Eurostat, 2011] [Spanish Federation of Dyslexia, 2008] [Vellutino et al., 2004] [Brunswick, 2010] [Jimnez et al. 2009] [Carrillo et al. 2011] [National Academy of Sciences, 1987] [Shaywitz et al. 1992] PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • Outline Information access Information democratization Benets people without dyslexia Benets others users, e.g. low vision How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Digital format eBook sales increased by 115.8% (January 2011) Human Right ! ! ! ! Good for Dyslexia, Useful for All ! ! ! Right Moment Dyslexia [Dixon, 2007] [McCarthy & Swierenga, 2010] [Evett & Brown, 2005] [United Nations Committee of the General Assembly, 2006] [Association of American Publishers, 2011] PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • how? A Multidisciplinary Challenge How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Which problems dyslexic people experience? Are there linguistic foundations? Linguistics Cognitive Neuroscience Natural Language Processing How NLP could help dyslexic people? How text presentation could help people with dyslexia? Human Computer Interaction Eye-trackingHow can we measure the reading performance? PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • how? A Multidisciplinary Challenge How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Eye-trackingHow can we measure the reading performance? PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineHow Do We Read? Eye Tracking! How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Every dot is a xation point PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1dRqpRi4csSee VIDEO here:
  • OutlineMethodology - Participants, Equipment Participants with Dyslexia Control Group From 23 to 56 participants Native Spanish speakers Conrmed diagnosis of dyslexia Ages ranging from 11 to 56 (average around 20 - 21 years depending on the experiment) Participants with attention decit disorder Frequent users of Internet and frequent readers Education Same number Idem ! Mapped ! ! ! ! Similar Similar ! Tobii T50 (17-inch TFT monitor) Eye-Tracker How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineMethodology Materials How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Text Presentation Controlled Comprehension Questionnaires Multiple choice tests Literal and inferential questions. Correct, partially correct and wrong answers 1 2 3 4 5 muy fcil very easy muy difcil very dicult Facilidad comprensin Ease of understandingSubjective Ratings Base Texts Same genre Similar topics Same number of sentences Same number of words Similar average word length Same number of unique named entities, foreign words and same number/ type of numerical expressions + Text modications (Independent variables) Facilidad de Comprensin PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • Outline within-subjects design between-subject design Methodology Design Qualitative Data Quantitative Data Design Dependent Variables Statistical Tests (conditions in counterbalanced order) Likert scales Eye tracking Questionnaires PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineOutline What? ! Why? Goal ! Motivation Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Applications How? Methodology PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • Outline Understanding How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • how? A Multidisciplinary Challenge How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Which problems dyslexic people experience? Are there linguistic foundations? Linguistics Cognitive Neuroscience Natural Language Processing How NLP could help dyslexic people? How text presentation could help people with dyslexia? Human Computer Interaction Eye-trackingHow can we measure the reading performance? PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • how? A Multidisciplinary Challenge How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Which problems dyslexic people experience? Are there linguistic foundations? Linguistics Cognitive Neuroscience PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineWhy Errors? How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration ! Dyslexia Studying dyslexia Diagnosing dyslexia Accessibility tools ! ! The Web Detecting spam Measuring quality Source of Knowledge Errors [Treiman, 1997] [Lindgrn & Laine, 2011] [Schulte-Krne et al. 1996] [Pedler, 2007] [Piskorski et al. 2008] [Gelman & Barletta, 2008] PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineDyslexia in the Web [Rello & Baeza-Yates, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 2012] English Spanish How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • OutlineAre there Linguistic Foundations? Written Errors by People with Dyslexia [Rello & Llisterri, LDW 1012 ] [Rello, Baeza-Yates & Llisterri, LREC 2014] How people with dyslexia read and what can HCI and NLP do about it? Keynote at DSAI 2013 Analysis Visual & Phonetic Understanding Text Presentation Text Content Integration PhD Thesis Defense 27th June 2014, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • Outline Please read this text. It is just an example but helps to underztand how we read text. A text can be legivle but this does not mean that it will be compreensible. Hence, we habe to take care about the presantation of a text as well as the lexical,