Meat preservation technologies in Kenya’s pastoral areas with potential for market competitiveness improvement

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Meat Processing and Preservation Technologies Practiced in Kenyas Pastoral Areas with Potential for Improvement of their Market Competitiveness

Meat Preservation Technologies in Kenyas Pastoral Areas with Potential for Market Competitiveness ImprovementJosphat Gichure, Catherine Kunyanga, Pius Mathi and Jasper Imungi

Conference on Policies for Competitive Smallholder Livestock ProductionGaborone, Botswana, 4-6 March 2015The average worldwide losses and waste per year along the meat value chain estimated at 20 % (Parfitt et al., 2010).Low-income countries experience greatest losses (Parfitt et al., 2010; Cederberg et al., 2011) - caused by: underutilization of edible by-products,inappropriate post-harvest handling inappropriate preservation technologies Introduction 40%Introduction contKenyan case:Approx 67 % of red meat is from pastoral production systems (IPAR, 2004).Post-harvest losses in pastoral areas are caused by poor handling, processing and preservation technologiesProblem: these technologies not standardized and no attempts have been made to mainstream into formal markets (Gichure et al., 2014). Introduction contPreservation of pastoral meat generally through reduction of water activity (Gichure et al., 2014)main techniques: sun-drying deep-frying and salting of whole-muscle tissues. proteolysis, lipolysis, oxidation and microbial spoilage main cause of spoilage of pastoral meat products (Zhou et al., 2010)

Introduction contWhat is a competitive product??? One with ability to sustainably gain & maintain market shareMarket share and competitiveness depends on consumers perceived quality cues based on needs and expectationsQuality cues for meat products include appearance, freshness and safety, taste, amount of visible fat/ oil, texture, tenderness and convenience and perceived qualityIntroduction contMarket competitiveness of food product also based on competitive potential, performance measure and competitive process;Performance measure depends on how well the products are positioned relative to competing productsCompetitive potential depends on availability and quantity of inputs, cost of raw materials and productivityCompetitive process measures degree by which competitive potential is converted into competitive performance.

Research objectiveThis research seeks to improve meat preservation technologies in pastoral area to enhance competitiveness of selected local productsSpecifically,To identify the most consumed pastoral meat productsTo assess the technologies used to preserve pastoral meatTo establish the most competitive products based on competitive potential, performance measure and quality cues

JustificationRapid urbanization in Africa has increased demand for indigenous processed meat in the urban centers. Need for improvement design of the most promising local preservation technologies based on their market competitiveness.Technologies need be standardized for quality equivalence.

Pastoral condition: high temperature ~30-40C, low humidity

Study area

Focus group discussion and observations used to collect dataEach FGD had between 8 to 12 participants of either genderEach group provided with 3 kilograms of hind limb mutton steak purchased from local slaughterhouse and were required to preserve it based on indigenous methods. Final products evaluated for potential competitiveness using 5-pont hedonic scale where 5 = good 4 = slightly good 3 = neither good nor bad 2 = slightly bad while 1 = bad.Comparisons of products made using corned beef and beef biltongStudy design and methodology contResults and discussion

Results and discussion cont

Results and discussion cont

Key: - reps Never, -/+ reps At times or rarely, + reps Always

13Results and discussion cont

Results and discussion contCompetitiveness of pastoral meat productsHigh scores for appearance flavor availability and cost of raw materials and shelf-life of final products. Low scores for convenience texture and market performanceHigher scores for flavor attributed to use of spices and use of ghee in nyirinyiri and smoke in enyas- spices and smoke has inhibitory effect to microbial spoilage and chemical oxidation of productsSmoke also used to sanitize packaging containersProducts are cooled to solidify the deep-frying fat/ oil over meat thereby creating anaerobic conditions- this prolonged shelf-life. Challenge: products become inconvenient to use and predispose products to oxidation

Results and discussion cont

vsvsHow do we improve convenience?Conclusion and recommendationCompetitiveness would be increased if preservation processes are standardized and upgraded. Increased competitiveness would introduce the products into formal markets in urban areasOn basis of technology used; deep-frying drip-drying cooling products over deep frying oil and use of spices/ smoke have the greatest potential. Further studies should be focused on upgrading these processes for incorporation into the formal meat value chan.

would wish to AcknowledgeGerman Ministry of Education and Research through RELOAD projectThe entire RELOAD team in E. Africa and GermanyILRI

Thank youPresenting authors