Mitosis study guide answers

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Mitosis Study Guide

Mitosis Study GuideReviewWhat is the purpose of Mitosis?Division of cells to grow, or replace old, diseased, dead or damaged body cellsExplain each phase of the cell cycle and draw a picture of what a cell in this phase might look likeInterphaseCell GrowsDNA is copiedVisible nucleus and nucleolusDNA is uncondensed=chromatin Chromosomes are NOT visible

Interphase

ProphaseVisible condensed double-stranded chromosomes/ sister chromatidsCentrioles begin to send out spindle fibersNuclear envelope disappears

Prophase

Plant CellAnimal CellMetaphaseDouble-stranded chromosomes/ Sister chromatids line up in the center of the cellSpindle fibers connect to the centromeres of each chromosomeChromatids are being pulledMetaphasePlant CellAnimal Cell

AnaphaseSister chromatids are moving apart= chromatids once splitChromatids are moving towards the poles of the cellSpindle fibers pull the chromatids to the polesAnaphasePlant CellAnimal Cell

TelophaseNew nuclear membrane begins to form around each set of chromatidsCytoplasm begins to divideChromatids uncoil= chromatin once uncondensedVisible cleavage furrowSpindle fibers disappearTelophasePlant CellAnimal Cell

CytokinesisCytoplasm divides2 new daughter cells identical to the parent cellAfter cytokinesis, cell return to interphase

Cytokinesis

Plant CellAnimal CellExplain what happens to the cells genetic information during the following parts of the cell cycleInterphaseDNA is copiedDNA is uncondensed=chromatin Chromosomes are NOT visible

ProphaseVisible condensed double-stranded chromosomes/ sister chromatids

MetaphaseDouble-stranded chromosomes/ Sister chromatids line up in the center of the cellChromatids are being pulledAnaphaseSister chromatids are moving apart= chromatids once splitChromatids are moving towards the poles of the cell by means of the spindle fibersTelophaseNew nuclear membrane begins to form around each set of chromatidsChromatids uncoil= chromatin once uncondensedCytokinesis2 new daughter cellsWith identical DNA within each

How do daughter cells produced in mitosis compare to the original cell?The daughter cells are identical to the original (parent) cell.Same function, same internal parts, SAME DNAExplain the relationship that mitosis has with cancer.Cancer is unregulated cell growth and division.How do Chemotherapy drugs used in cancer treatment affect Mitosis?They stop cell division at various stages of the cell cyclePrevent DNA replication (doxorubicin)Cross-link with DNA to prevent synthesis (cyclophospliamide)Blocks cells from making nucleotides (methotrexate)

Why does chemotherapy tend to cause side effects like hair loss and gastrointestinal issues?They kill off the rapidly dividing cells of the body kill not only rapidly dividing cancer cells but also cells of the rapidly dividing cells like those that make up hair, bone marrow, and the GI tract Effects are NOT usually permanentWhat is the difference between a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope?Scanning Electron MicroscopeThe entire organism/specimen can be used, but it must be coated in a thin layer of gold atomsThe imaged obtained is a 3 dimensional surface imageWhat is the difference between a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope?Transmission Electron MicroscopeUses a thin slice of an organism/specimenUsed to study the internal make-up of the specimenScanning Electron Microscope Images

Cat Flea HeadScanning Electron Microscope Images

Hypodermic NeedleScanning Electron Microscope Images

Staple Through PaperTransmission Electron Microscope Images

Cross Section of a Sunflower Plant CellTransmission Electron Microscope Images

Giardia CystsTransmission Electron Microscope Images

Cross Section of Chloroplast in a LeafHow are the pictures they take different?Scanning Electron Microscope Images show3 dimensional images of surface

Transmission Electron Microscope Images showInternal make-up of the specimen (cross section)

What types of problems can occur at each stage of the Mitosis?Prophase: nuclear membrane may not dissolve causing the cell to not be able to go through other stagesMetaphase: Chromosomes may not line up, causing an error in the remaining phasesAnaphase: Sister chromatids may not split correctly, causing an error in the number of chromosomes at each cell poleTelophase: Chromatids may not unravel, causing the chromatin not to be enclosed in the new nuclear membrane.What might happen to an organism if their cells lost the ability to divide via Mitosis?Once that cell dies then that particular cell would not be able to pass on their DNA.

Furthermore, that particular organism would not be able to make new cells after the original parent cell has died

Eventually casing the death of that particular organism

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