WETLANDS: ECOLOGY, CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION No part of this digital document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. The publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this digital document, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained herein. This digital document is sold with the clear understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, medical or any other professional services.
WETLANDS: ECOLOGY, CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION RAYMUNDO E. RUSSO EDITOR Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York
Copyright 2008 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher. For permission to use material from this book please contact us: Telephone 631-231-7269; Fax 631-231-8175 Web Site: http://www.novapublishers.com NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers use of, or reliance upon, this material. Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Wetlands : ecology, conservation, and restoration / Raymundo E. Russo (editor). p. cm. ISBN 978-1-60876-354-2 (E-Book) 1. Wetland ecology. 2. Wetland conservation. 3. Wetland restoration. I. Russo, Raymundo E. QH541.5.M3W4836 2008 577.68--dc22 2008030635 Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York
CONTENTS Preface vii Expert Commentary Two Alternative Modes for Diffuse Pollution Control by Wetlands 1 Chen Qingfeng, Shan Baoqing and Ma Junjian Short Communication Multiangular Imaging of Wetlands in New England 7 Lesley-Ann L. Dupigny-Giroux and Eden Furtak-Cole Research and Review Articles Chapter 1 Wetlands: Water Living Filters? 15 Ana Dordio, A. J. Palace Carvalho and Ana Paula Pinto Chapter 2 Remote Sensing Data for Regional Wetland Mapping in the United States: Trends and Future Prospects 73 Megan W. Lang and Greg W. McCarty Chapter 3 Transforming Useless Swamps into Valuable Wetlands: Evaluating Americas Policy, 1970-2008 113 Andrea K.Gerlak and Jeanne N. Clarke Chapter 4 Dynamics of Coastal Wetlands and Land Use Changes in the Watershed: Implications for the Biodiversity 133 Miguel ngel Esteve, M. Francisca Carreo, Francisco Robledano, Julia Martnez-Fernndez and Jess Miano Chapter 5 Pathogen Removal in Constructed Wetlands 177 Kela P. Weber and Raymond L. Legge Chapter 6 The Role of Harvest and Plant Decomposition in Constructed Wetlands 213 Juan A. lvarez and Eloy Bcares
Contentsvi Chapter 7 Nutrition and Toxicity of Inorganic Substances from Wastewater in Constructed Wetlands 247 Zhenhua Zhang, Zed Rengel and Kathy Meney Chapter 8 A Conceptual and Methodological Framework for the Study of Vegetated Fluvial Landscape Evolutionary Trajectories 271 Dov Corenblit, Johannes Steiger, Eric Tabacchi and Angela M. Gurnell Chapter 9 Macrophyte Morphological Response to the Industrial Effluent Toxicity in a Constructed Wetland 295 H. R. Hadad, M. M. Mufarrege, M. Pinciroli, G. Di Luca, V. del Sastre and M. A. Maine Chapter 10 Phytoremediation Processes for Water and Air Pollution Control in the Aspects of Nutrient and Carbon Dioxide Removals 325 Jae Seong Rhee, Yonghui Song, Fasheng Li and Janjit Iamchaturapatr Chapter 11 Phytoplankton Biomass Regulation in Contrasting Environmental States of Temporary Pools 359 Silvia Martn, Marta Rodrguez and David G. Angeler Chapter 12 Can Tern Migrants Coexist with Urban Development and Estuarine Recreational Activities? 373 Ken Chan, Jill Dening and Marja-Leena Malinen Chapter 13 Agricultural Wetlands 391 R. Krger Chapter 14 Profiling Cover Cycle Dynamics for Prairie Pothole Wetland Landscapes 407 Rebecca L. Phillips and Ofer Beeri Index 419
PREFACE Wetlands are lands where saturation with water is the dominant factor determining the nature of soil development and the types of plant and animal communities living in the soil and on its surface. Wetlands vary widely because of regional and local differences in soils, topography, climate, hydrology, water chemistry, vegetation, and other factors, including human disturbance. Indeed, wetlands are found from the tundra to the tropics and on every continent except Antarctica. This new book brings together the latest research in the field. Short Communication - Multiple view angles (MVA) or multiangular imaging represents a yet to be explored use of the remote sensing of wetlands. The ability to view the landscape off-nadir (traditionally the surface is viewed at right angles) allows for the quantification of moisture stress, species separation and the proportion of vegetation to standing water in these ecosystems. This commentary will focus on the ratio of two broadband wavelengths (near- infrared to blue) derived from multiangular images acquired by the Airborne Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (AirMISR) of wetlands across New England. The resulting insights into the photointerpretation, monitoring and mapping of wetlands will be highlighted. Chapter 1 - Human societies have indirectly used natural wetlands as wastewater discharge sites for many centuries. Observations of the wastewater depuration capacity of natural wetlands have led to a greater understanding of the potential of these ecosystems for pollutant assimilation and have stimulated the development of artificial wetlands systems for treatment of wastewaters from a variety of sources. Constructed wetlands, in contrast to natural wetlands, are human-made systems that are designed, built and operated to emulate wetlands or functions of natural wetlands for human desires or needs. Constructed wetlands have recently received considerable attention as low cost, efficient means to clean-up not only municipal wastewaters but also point and non-point wastewaters, such as acid mine drainage, agricultural effluents, landfill leachates, petrochemicals, as well as industrial effluents. Currently, untreated wastewater discharge in the natural wetlands sites is becoming an increasingly abandoned practice whereas the use of constructed wetlands for treatment of wastewater is an emerging technology worldwide. However, natural wetlands still play an important role in the improvement of water quality as they act as buffer zones surrounding water bodies and as a polishing stage for the effluents from conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants, before they reach the receiving water streams. In fact, one of the emerging issues in environmental science has been the inefficiency of wastewater treatment plants to remove several xenobiotic organic compounds such as pesticides and pharmaceutical residues and consequent contamination of the receiving water bodies. Recent
Raymundo E. Russoviii studies have shown that wetlands systems were able to efficiently remove many of these compounds, thus reaffirming the importance of the role which can be played by wetlands in water quality preservation. The aim of this work is to present a review on the application of wetlands as living filters for water purification. Emphasis was focused on the removal of micropollutants, especially xenobiotic organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals residues, which are not efficiently removed by conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants. Furthermore, the role of wetlands as protection zones which contribute to the improvement of the aquatic ecosystems quality will be discussed. Chapter 2 - Historically, the biologic, aesthetic, and economic values of wetlands were largely unappreciated. Wetlands within the United States have been and are continuing to disappear rapidly. Efforts are being made to conserve remaining wetlands and many regulatory policies have been adopted in support of this goal. To regulate the loss, preservation, and/or restoration of wetlands and to judge the effectiveness of these regulatory efforts in preserving associated ecosystem services, wetlands must be routinely monitored. Wetland mapping is an essential part of this monitoring program and much effort has been made by the US state and federal governments, as well as other organizations, to provide quality wetland map products. Wetland maps can serve a variety of purposes including regulation and natural resource management. They can also be used to parameterize models that quantify water quality and quantity, as well as the provision of wetland ecosystem services, at the watershed scale. Wetland hydrology is the most important abiotic factor controlling ecosystem function and extent, and it should therefore be a vital part of any wetland mapping or monitoring program. New approaches are needed to not only map wetlands, but also to monitor wetland hydrology as it varies in response to weather, vegetation phenology, surrounding landuse change, and other anthropogenic forces including climate change. Recently developed remote sensing technologies and techniques have the potential to improve the detail and reliability of wetland maps and the ability to monitor important parameters such as hydrology. Various types of remotely sensed data (e.g., aerial photographs, multispectral, hyperspectral, passive microwave, radar, and lidar) have different capabilities with specific advantages and disadvantages for wetland mapping at the regional scale. Although aerial photographs were traditionally used to map wetlands and infer hydrology, fine-resolution optical images are now available more frequently as commercial agencies increase satellite coverage (e.g., Quickbird and IKONOS). However, optical data, such as aerial photographs and multispectral satellite images have limitations, including their inability to detect hydrology below dense vegetative canopies and their limited ability to detect variations in hydrology (i.e., inundation and soil moisture). The restrictions of optical data are increasingly being compensated for with the use of new technologies, including synthetic aperture radar, lidar, and geospatial modeling. The availability of these new data sources is increasing rapidly. For example, many states in the US are now collecting synoptic state-wide coverages of lidar data. The sources, strengths, and limitations of different types of remotely sensed data are reviewed in this chapter, as well as the importance of temporal and spatial resolution necessary for regional scale wetland mapping efforts. The potential of multi-temporal, multi-sensor approaches that capitalize on geospatial modeling are emphasized for meeting current wetland mapping challenges. Chapter 3 - This paper traces the evolution of Americas wetland policy beginning with passage of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972. This law, for the first time, established a
Preface ix federal program to protect wetlands, dramatically elevating the value of these ecosystems. However, despite attitudinal changes and new governmental programs, the nation continues to lose its potentially valuable wetlands -- albeit at a slower rate than was the case in the 1970s and prior to the passage of the CWA. This chapter offers an objective evaluation of the federal wetlands protection policy. The authors place this evaluation within a broad societal context, showing that since 1970 there have occurred sweeping demographic, economic, and political changes that clearly have impacted the extent of wetlands in the United States. They argue that Section 404 has failed to reverse the net loss of wetlands in the U.S. Moreover, it has evolved into a policy lightening rod within the water resources arena and been a major factor in Congress failure to revise and reauthorize the Clean Water Act. Finally, the authors offer some recommendations designed to improve the policy, arguing for heightened wetlands protection through partnerships and acquisitions. Chapter 4 - The Mediterranean coastal landscapes have suffered significant changes along the last decades due to the agricultural intensification and tourist development. Such changes have modified the water flows and specifically the hydrological regime of wetlands, as has occurred in the Mar Menor (Southeast Spain). The Mar Menor coastal lagoon and associated wetlands present noticeable ecological and biodiversity values. However, the land- use changes in the watershed and the consequent changes in the water and nutrient flows along the period 1980-2005 are threatening the conservation of these wetlands. A dynamic model has been developed to simulate the key environmental and socio-economic factors driving the export of nutrients to the Mar Menor lagoon and associated wetlands, where some eutrophication processes have appeared. In this chapter the changes in the vegetal and faunistic assemblages are analysed. Vegetal communities are studied by means of remote sensing techniques, which have provided information about the changes in area and habitat composition of the wetlands along the considered period. This has shown that the habitats more negatively affected by the hydrological changes are those most threatened in...