- 1. Buddhist Ethics Dr. Natdhira Sridee
2. General Concept of Ethics 3. The meaning of Ethics O Ethics is the branch of study dealing with what is the proper course of action for man. It answers the question, "What do I do?" It is the study of right and wrong in human endeavors. 4. WHY DO WE NEED ETHICS? The answer is Because we conflict about the term Value. 5. O The term good is a value of Action. Now, for understand distinctly, we should consider term good compare with the term fact 6. Case study Group A 1. This picture is drown by Paul Gauguin. 7. Mr.Daeng is 8ft. High and He is so handsome. 8. This Constitution is provided on last year. 9. Group B 1. This picture is beautiful. 2. Mr. Daeng is good. 3. This law is justice. 10. VALUE OR FACT Let we consider the term Value and Fact 1. This knife is good. 2. This doctor is good. 3. That girl is dam beautiful. 4. The dog is good. 11. CONCLUSION Value : is desirable characteristics. Fact : is the character of verified information about past or present circumstances or events which are presented as objective reality. 12. THE TYPE OF VALUES 1. Intrinsic Value is an ethical and philosophic property. It is the ethical or philosophic value that an object has "in itself" or "for its own sake", as an intrinsic property. An object with intrinsic value may be regarded as an end or end-in-itself. 2. Extrinsic Value : The ethical value exists outside, does not exist in itself. 13. The Scope of Ethics 1. The value of humans conduct 2. The goal of life 3. The Moral judgement 14. Good or bad Now, we will examine what is good or bad, because it concerns with human conduct, and they always confuse about the meaning and value of its. we will debate the problem of this term good or bad investigate the three theories as follows; 15. 1. Naturalism 2. Non-Naturalism 3. Emotivism 16. NATURALISM Naturalism views that we can define the Ethical value and what we use to define have to be beyond the scope of Ethics, that is, it is in Nature. For instance, good thing is right thing. In this sentence we use the term right define the term good. 17. In concept of Naturalism, we cannot use the right define the term good, because both have the same ethical value. Then the definition of ethical value, we have to use the term which is beyond the scope of Ethics. Ex. The good thing is what the public like. 18. In this sentence, we define the term good by the term the view of public, because it is the phenomena which appears in the society. This is not the phenomena of Ethics, but it is phenomena of society. The society is a part of the World, and the world is a part of Nature. Hence, the view of public is the phenomena of the nature, we, therefore, in the case, define the ethical value by nature. 19. Utilitarianism, the good thing is the greatest happiness or greatest felicity principle. In this sentence, the happiness is the natural phenomena. It appear to human when they meet something they like. Then Utilitarianism is Naturalism because define the term good by the nature. If there is some who is insane define that good is green or good is what make it rains. He is also naturalism. But you agree with him, dont you? It depend on you. 20. Naturalism views that the ethical value is relate with some facts, such as, in the concept of Hedonism or Utilitarianism, when we said that; A. this is good it means; B. It can make the greatest happiness 21. NON-NATURALISM Non-Naturalism determine that the ethical value which is the moral property does not concern with natural property. The terms good or bad are the character of action. Then we cannot define it. But we can know by intuition (Intuitionism). 22. O Human being know what is good or bad by special faculty. Eyes, ears, nose, tongue are the physical faculties, and form, sound, smell and test are the physical properties. But these are not the special faculty. The special faculty in concept of Ethics is intellect (conscience). Some thinkers call it moral faculty 23. EMOTIVISM For Emotivism, when we said that something is good or bad, it does not mean that it has or does not has the ethical character. We just show the feeling or emotion toward that thing. 24. O Ex. We said that yesterday Peter has stolen the money at Wat Tallom. This sentence is the fact, we may argue that it is true or not true. And suppose that we said that yesterday Peter has stolen the money at Wat Tallom, Peter do it wrong. 25. O For Naturalism and Non-naturalism, we are arguing does the term wrong has the ethical value. But for Emotivim, this sentence is nonsense. Because we cannot argue that who is wrong or good?. It is just a feeling. It does not specify any property of Ethical value. 26. GOOD OR BAD IN CONCEPT OF RELIGIONS Now, we will examine the good or bad in concept of religions as follows; 1. Buddhism 2. Christianity 3. Islam 27. Buddhist Ethics O Buddhism, like any other Indian religion, does not divorce knowledge from conduct, theory from practice. Philosophy is meaningful only as it provides an understanding of reality on which to regulate ones life. Therefore, according to Buddhist ethics, any knowledge cannot be separated from practice. Cause and effect are related. However, the term ethics during the time of the Buddha was not used. 28. OThe used terms in the Buddhas time were Brahmacariya, Dhamma-Vinaya and Navagasatthussana. Now let us consider the meanings and significance of them respectively. 29. 1. Brahmacariya. OThe term Brahmacariya was used by the Buddha when he sent out his sixty-one disciples for the first missionary. He pronounces: 30. O Caratha Bhikkhave Caravan Bahujanahitya Bahujanasukhya Loknukampya Atthya Hitya Sukhya Devamanussna Brahmacariya Paksetha. O Monks, you have to preach the Brahmacariya (Doctrine, Code of ethics) for health and welfare of mankind and gods (Vin. 4/32/32). 31. Further, there is another evidence showing the code of ethics: Ayameva Kho Bhikkhu Ariyo Ahagiko Maggo Brahmacariya Monk, the Noble Eightfold Path is Brahmacariya: Code of Ethics (S. 19/30/7). 32. O Therefore, Brahmacariya literally means the sublime life. Here, it is called Buddhist Ethics. It means the noble conduct or the noble behavior because it leads those who practise and it society to the highest virtue 33. 2. Dhamma-Vinaya. O This is used before the passing away of the Buddha: O Yo nanda May Dhammo ca Vinayo ca Desito Paatto So Vo Mamaccayena Sattha. O Dhamma-Vinaya: Teaching and Discipline taught and established by me will be your teacher (S. 10/141/138).