1. The Counter-reformationThe Catholic Response to the Protestant Reformation 2. Reformed Papacy Pope Paul III 1534-1549 Appointed reform-minded cardinalsbishops who: Improved education for the clergy Tried to enforce moral standards Tried to correct most glaring abuses 3. Reformed Papacy Papal Reforms of Paul III Reform Commission 1537 - determined Churchs problems = corrupt popespolicies Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office 1542 had jurisdiction over the Roman Inquisition Council of Trent Pope Paul III 4. Reform Commission Est. new religious orders preached to commoners Ended selling of church offices pluralism Opened seminaries to train priests 5. Roman Inquisition Committee of 6 cardinals w judicial authority over all Catholics. Power to: Arrest Imprison Execute Sought out heretics Published theIndex of Prohibited Bookshandout Cardinal Caraffa Roman Inquisitor 6. Roman Inquisition Accepted hearsay as evidence Not obliged to inform accused of charges against them Known to use torture 7. Council of Trent 1545-1563 offon Group of various levels of clergy met Goals: Reform church Reconcile w Protestants Faced many political obstacles 8. Council of Trent Upheld traditional Catholic teachings Faith good works Seven sacraments Transubstantiation Clerical celibacy Purgatory 9. Council of Trent Reform measures for clergy Bishops required to reside in own dioceses Suppressed pluralism simony Forbade sale of indulgences Clerics to give up concubines 10. Council of Trent Changes for laypeople Required witnesses to marriage Did not achieve goal of reconciliation w Protestants 11. New Religious Orders The Jesuits aka Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola = founder Religious order dedicated to the pope Used education to spread their message Restored Catholicism Europe World 12. New Religious Orders The Ursulines Order of nuns Founder = Angela Merici Prestige for education of women Could re-Christianize society by training future wivesmoms 13. ReformationSociety Culture 14. Protestantism Marriage Clerical celibacy = unnatural against Gods commandments Contract, not sacrament Proper marriage upholds ideals of Spiritual equality between men women Hierarchy of husband as authority wife as submissive 15. Protestantism Women Opposed medievalmisogyny Respected women, esp. as motherswives Equal right to divorce Encouraged education for women Read handout:Women of the Reformation 16. Anti-Semitism Jews continued to be persecuted against during the Reformation Luther - expected Jews to convert called for persecution when they did not Catholic states - Jews segregated into ghettos 17. The Jews Their Lies Discuss with your partner the following: Were you surprised by what you read? Why or why not? What were some of the traits Luther states that Jews possess? According to Luther how should Christians handle the Jews? How is Luthers writingattitude a reflection of the 16 thC.? 18. Exam Potential essay topics: Compare and contrast the Lutheran and Catholic Reformations in the 16 thC. regarding the reform of both religious doctrine and religious practices. Evaluate the influence of Renaissance humanism on the Protestant Reformation and Catholic reforms.