Gothic (Pp Tminimizer)

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2. The Abbot Suger of St. Denis wanted to create a church that would be even greater than the famous Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople. The Church of St.. Denis became a model for most of the late 12th-century French cathedrals, including those at Chartres and Senlis. Moving away from the low Romanesque style, it was the first large building to use the new vertical style known asGothic . The earliest complete Gothic structure is the ambulatory of the abbey of Saint-Denis in France. Built between 1140 and 1144, the church became a model for most of the late 12th-century French cathedrals, including those at Chartres . However, features of the Gothic style are found in earlier buildings in Normandy and elsewhere. 3. In Bishop Sugers mind, it was not wrong to glory god through visual riches, because it was possible (through these riches and the connection to God they provide) to transcend the mere beauty of the object, and become aware of the spiritual nature of the beauty. For Suger, all of the universe was lights, and every smaller light held some link to the True Light, the origin of all beauty God Himself. And what nobler pursuit, than to glorify France, the king, and God with a church more beautiful than even the churches of Jerusalem? So it was that Suger undertook to bring the light of heaven into the church of St. Denis. He replaced the old single door on the west end of the church with three doors, to represent the Holy Trinity, and around these doors he had carvings made of biblical stories. Also, he put a brilliant stained glass rose window above the doors to flood the church with color and light. Next he rebuilt the apse at the other end of the church, using layers of columns and rib vaulting to make the heavy stonework appear to float, with no more weight than a canopy of leaves. Finally, towards the end of his life, he laid the groundwork for a renovation of the nave, but did not live to see if completed. This nave, upon its completion, featured high stained glass windows, flying buttresses, and every other feature of the new Gothic style. The style spread throughout France and into Spain, Germany, Britain, and Italy; Sugers style, and the philosophy behind it, would dominate architecture for hundreds of years. 4. 5. A Benedictine monk named Suger realized his life's dream of building an abbey that would have "the most radiant windows" which would "illuminate men's minds so that they may travel through apprehension of God's light." In his writings, Suger, Abbot of St. Denis from 1122 to 1151, equated Divine Light with the light that shimmered through the stained glass windows of his beloved abbey. 6. Early Gothic elevation Nave arcade Gallery Triforium Clerestory 7. 8. 9.

    • Bishop Maurice de Sully started the construction in 1163. The Cathedral was to be built in the new gothic style and had to reflect Paris's status as the capital of the Kingdom France. It was the first cathedral built on a monumental scale and became the prototype for future cathedrals in France, like the cathedrals of Amiens, Chartres or Rheims, just to name the most famous.It took until 1345 before the cathedral was completed, partly because the design was enlarged during construction. The result is an overwhelming building, 130m long with two 69 meters tall towers. The spire, which reaches 90m, was added in the 19th century by Viollet-le-Duc. The Notre-Dame has several large rose windows, the northern 13th century window is the most impressive. It is 21 meters high. The spectacular eastern buttresses are 15m wide. The west side features 3 wide portals, the gallery of Kings and the famous gargoyles. During the Revolution, many of the cathedral's sculpture, gargoyles and interior was removed or demolished. Even the gallery of Kings was severely damaged. It wasn't until the 19th century before the Cathedral was fully restored by a Parisian architect, Eugne Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc. It was restored again between 1991 and 2001

10. sexpartite rib vault : a rib vault which is divided into six sections. sexpartite rib vault: A rib vault whose surface is divided into six sections by three ribs. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Consecrated in 1030, it was completely finished in 1037. It consisted of an immense crypt, a vast nave without transept, 105 m long by 34 m wide, two towers, no vault but a wood-framed roof. On June 10th 1194, another fire devastated the city. The cathedral was almost entirely destroyed. Only the western-portion ( the towers and the faade, including the Royal portal ( hadn't been affected, even the stained-glass windows remained intact.This catastrophe provoked general consternation, as much in France as abroad. There answered a true spirit of collective solidarity. From kings to farmers, in Ile-de-France as in Champagne, Normandy, Burgundy and as in England (despite the war against Philip-Augustus, Richard the Lion Heart, a generous donator himself, let the collectors circulate freely), they organized collections and created fellowships. The wealthy came to deposit money and valuable objects into the Chartres Work fund, the artisans and countrymen sold what they could, objects, a sac of wheat or livestock.The enthusiasm of the people was so great for this reconstruction of the cathedral that the countrymen of entire villages hitched-up their carts in order to transport the stones, and came to bring the produce of their harvests to feed the builders for free ( for to work as quickly as possible required several teams of workers, stone-cutters, masons and carpenters, who lived and established their workshops where they could in the rubble of the burned city.Relics abound in the cathedral's medieval treasury and pilgrims flood into Chartres. The "Virgin's Chemise", called today the "Veil of the Virgin", a piece of silk five meters in length is the principal relic 17. The rebuilding of the cathedral meant the intact walls areEarly Gothic while the new additions are High Gothic.The bays become more rectangular (rectangular bay system) And flanked by a square aisle.The use of flying buttresses made the gallery unnecessary. 18. Nave Arcade Triforium Clerestory 19. The stained-glass windows are the glory of Chartres. No other cathedral from the Middle Ages has been able to safeguard such a heritage: a hundred or so old windows dating for the most part from the beginning of the 13th century. Forming 106 picture windows in its entirety, 3 rose windows among them, the windows of the cathedral of Chartres cover a surface of 3,150 m2. With the exception of eight windows in the choir, installed during the 18th century, and the four windows of the transept destroyed in 1791, all of the windows of Chartres have been made during the Middle Ages.The stained-glass windows recount the rallying of donors for the reconstruction of the cathedral. Those of the lower floor were offered for the most part by craftsman guilds, butchers or cobblers, bakers or apothecaries, masons or moneychangers, which made these works a sort of commemorative plaque destined to support the prayers of a social group while at the same time ensuring a brilliant prestige. I n the woods in a winter afternoon one will see as readily the origin of the stained glass window, with which Gothic cathedrals are adorned, in the colors of the western sky seen through the bare and crossing branches of the forest. Ralph Waldo Emerson 20. The Royal Portal in the west facade of the cathedral dates to the 1140s. In a rather atypical arrangement, all three doors have been condensed between the towers. The arrangement of the tympanum is quite different from that of earlier Romanesque tympana. Christ appears in majesty, as always, but rather than being surrounded by scenes of judgment, we have a less frightening approach. The symbols of the evangelists flank Christ, while the Elders of the Apocalypse have been pushed out the archivolts. In the lintel, the twelve apostles, along with a pair of prophets complete the composition. JAMB FIGURESOld Testament kings and queens line the facade. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. Central doorway versussouth trancept doorway 26. Amiens cathedral The cathedral of Notre-Dame at Amiens is the tallest complete cathedral in France. It represents the pinnacle of Gothic engineering, and was the last of the extremely tall buildings. (Paris' Notre Dame could fit inside it twice).It measures 145m in length, its archway 42m, and covers an area of 200,000 square meters, making it the world's largest gothic building. 27. The Saint-Pierre cathedral in Beauvais is the highest in the entire Christian world - 68 metres, 225 feet, high. Its interior attracts visitors too, with the highest choir (48.50m) in the world. Despite being incomplete - it has no nave - the church dedicated to Saint Pierre and Saint Paul has two quite separate parts. The tallest gothic chancel in the world rises almost 47 metres above ground. The transept, built three centuries later, is a masterpiece of flamboyant architecture with its two monumental faades. The feat of architect Martin Chambiges was to have skilfully harmonised both parts of the cathedral that suffered a number of disasters during its history. 28. 29. 30. In the history of this development, one building deserves special mention, the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris (consecrated 1248). This was Louis IX's palace chapel, built to house an imposing collection of relics. It is aRayonnantbuilding meaning in this period many of the great cathedrals were under construction; the builders became bolder and more proficient, emphasizing in every way the vertical elements of the structure. Light and soaring structural skeletons were erected, reducing the size of all supporting members; the enlargement of windows resulted in a drastic reduction of wall surfaces. 31. The most complete example of Early English is without a doubt to be seen atSalisbury Cath