The Passover

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Study of Exodus 12:1-14

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  • 1. Exodus 12:1-14 PASSOVER

2. Call to Worship Great is the Lord and greatly to be praised! Each day God brings to us new opportunities to learn and grow. God is near to all of us. We will not fear to call upon the Lord. Come, let us praise God who walks with us daily. Let us open our hearts and spirits to God who loves and lives with us. 3. Invocation Redeeming God, come and heal our souls. Open our hearts to receive your words of hope and joy that we may become faithful servants of yours in this world which you have loaned to us. For we ask this in Jesus Name. AMEN. 4. Context A personal faith is experienced differently than in the community of faith. It was no less different for the promise of Abraham when it moved beyond a family or clan. As a nation, Israel would become the proving grounds for the ultimate expansion of that promise to all mankind. 5. Invocation Redeeming God, come and heal our souls. Open our hearts to receive your words of hope and joy that we may become faithful servants of yours in this world which you have loaned to us. For we ask this in Jesus Name. AMEN. 6. Context A personal faith is experienced differently than in the community of faith. It was no less different for the promise of Abraham when it moved beyond a family or clan. As a nation, Israel would become the proving grounds for the ultimate expansion of that promise to all mankind. 7. Invocation Redeeming God, come and heal our souls. Open our hearts to receive your words of hope and joy that we may become faithful servants of yours in this world which you have loaned to us. For we ask this in Jesus Name. AMEN. 8. Context A personal faith is experienced differently than in the community of faith. It was no less different for the promise of Abraham when it moved beyond a family or clan. As a nation, Israel would become the proving grounds for the ultimate expansion of that promise to all mankind. 9. Invocation Redeeming God, come and heal our souls. Open our hearts to receive your words of hope and joy that we may become faithful servants of yours in this world which you have loaned to us. For we ask this in Jesus Name. AMEN. 10. Context A personal faith is experienced differently than in the community of faith. It was no less different for the promise of Abraham when it moved beyond a family or clan. As a nation, Israel would become the proving grounds for the ultimate expansion of that promise to all mankind. 11. Context C. F. Keil. a divine consecration was necessary, that their outward severance from the land of Egypt might be accompanied by an inward severance from everything of an Egyptian or heathen nature. This consecration was to be imparted by the Passovera festival which was to lay the foundation for Israels birth into the new life of grace and fellowship with God, and to renew it perpetually in time to come. 12. Context God gave detailed instructions that were to guide his people at this crucial moment in their history. Pharaoh was reluctant to allow this large group of slave laborers to leave, however. Through Moses, the Lord sent a series of plagues against the Egyptians. Our text anticipates the final plague and provides a clear record of what took place. 13. Exodus 12:1The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt: 14. Exodus 12:1 Though God first spoke to Moses at the burning bush on the mountain of God, Moses did not need to go to and from the mountain of God in order to hear from God. The Bible makes clear that Moses did not need to be in a special place or pray during a special time to hear from God. The Temple would never replace that privilege. 15. Exodus 12:1 According to the Biblical record, neither Moses nor Aaron introduced any legislation of their own, either at this time or later. The whole system, religious, political, and ecclesiastical, was received by Divine Revelation. 16. Exodus 12:1 The eighth and ninth plagues of locusts and darkness may have already come upon the Egyptians by the time God speaks to Moses again in Exodus 12:1. Some commentators think the plague of darkness descended upon the Egyptians beginning the 10th day of the month, immediately before the first Passover was to be celebrated. 17. Exodus 12:2This month shall mark for you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year for you. 18. Exodus 12:2 The Israelite year prior to this would seem to have commenced with the autumn equinox (Exodus 23. 16) which corresponded to our October. The name of the new first month is Nisan, which falls during the latter part of March or the first part of April, since the Jews use a lunar calendar. For this reason, the dates for Passover, Palm Sunday, and Easter vary from year to year. 19. Exodus 12:2 With this first Passover, the Jews began a new calendar, a new calendar year, and a new way of life under the ceremonial Law of Moses before they entered the Promised Land. In a similar way, after the resurrection of Jesus Christ Sunday became the first day of the week and our new calendar is divided into BC and AD despite the attempt to change it. 20. Exodus 12:2 Lesson: Redemption by God always signals a new beginning (Exod. 12:1-2; II Cor. 5:17) We have a tendency to relish the new and quickly move to the next new thing. What appears as fickle is our innate desire to experience that life that is found in the new be it a baby or a beginning date in our lives. We celebrate birthdays, anniversaries and remember times that changed our lives and world. What we dont realize is that God gives us a new beginning each day. A new chance to laugh, love and live. Shed yourself of those things that so easily beset you. Enjoy each new day! 21. Exodus 12:3 Tell the whole congregation of Israel that on the tenth of this month they are to take a lamb for each family, a lamb for each household. 22. Exodus 12:3The new moon began a new month. In the Bible, the number 10 is a symbol for completion. On the 10th day, with the selection of the Lamb, the Hebrews began to make their Passover preparations. 23. Exodus 12:3 Each person in the whole congregation was to be involved in the celebration of the Passover, and the head of each household would serve as a priest in the slaughter of the sacrificial lamb. The Bible does not say that the person who slaughtered the lamb had to be a male, though the slaughtered lamb had to be male. 24. Exodus 12:4 If a household is too small for a whole lamb, it shall join its closest neighbor in obtaining one; the lamb shall be divided in proportion to the number of people who eat of it. 25. Exodus 12:4 A family could be comprised of many households. At this time, the Hebrews lived in houses with doors and door posts instead of tents. Some households could be too small in numbers or too impoverished to acquire or use a whole lamb, so God made provision for everyone, rich and poor alike.They were told to join with their closest neighbor to buy the lamb or take a lamb from the flock to use. 26. Exodus 12:4 The lamb would be divided equally among each person at the feast.Centuries later, the rabbis would say that each person needed to eat some lamb and no piece of lamb eaten could be smaller than the size of an olive. 27. Exodus 12:4 Lesson: The way of redemption needs to be proclaimed to all men (Exod. 12:3-4; Matt. 28:18-20)We love redemption and we dont even know it. We cheer the underdog, the overcomer and the Davids of our world who stand up to the Goliaths. We read those books, watch those movies and follow those stories where the downtrodden rise up to try again. We just realize how people need to hear what God has done for us. How He lifts us up each day and helps overcome this life. They need to hear more stories of redemption. 28. Exodus 12:5Your lamb shall be without blemish, a year-old male; you may take it from the sheep or from the goats. 29. Exodus 12:5 The Hebrew word is one of much wider meaning than our lamb. It is applicable to both sheep and goats. The lamb to die sacrificially and be eaten was to be the best, without blemish; just as the Lamb of God was the Messiah who never sinned and was the best that God the Father could give as a sacrifice for our sins. 30. Exodus 12:5 At future Passover celebrations, the lamb would have been born near or shortly after the previous Passover It would be a male, but would represent males and females; just as the Lamb of God, the Son of God, died for the sins of males and females and represented males and females when He died for all. 31. Exodus 12:6You shall keep it until the fourteenth day of this month; then the whole assembled congregation of Israel shall slaughter it at twilight. 32. Exodus 12:6 As Gods judgment on the gods of Egypt and the Egyptians (who worshiped the sun as a god or idol), some believe the Egyptians were in darkness from the 10th day of the month to the 14th day of the month. Their sun god could not overcome the true God and give them light or save their firstborn children from death. 33. Exodus 12:6 During this same time, the Israelites were caring for their livestock and their families in the light that God provided for them alone.As night approached on the 14th day, the lamb would be slaughtered and eaten in the evening, which was the beginning of the 15th day. The lamb was generally slain between the ninth hour (3 p.m.) and the eleventh (5 p.m.). 34. Exodus 12:6 One of the main peculiarities of the Paschal sacrifice was that the head of each family was entitled in the early times was required to offer the sacrifice for himself. In it no one intervened between the individual and God. Here we see a priesthood of all believers. 35. Exodus 12:6 Lesson: Purity of motive and action displays true faith and obedience (Exod. 12:5-6; Isa. 29:13) No one took a shortcut that Passover night. No one did just enough. Everything was on the line and nothing was held back. It takes such m