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The Protestant Reformation

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  • 1. CHAPTER 11:THE PROTESTANTREFORMATIONA break from tradition and Catholicism

2. Trouble Brewing Either with them or against them Heretics and the Inquisition Shifts in priorities Thearts Defending Papal States Celibacy? Corruption Especially in Germanic Areas John Wycliffe John Huss 3. When the timing is right The Printing Press By 1500, 250 cities printing 9-10 million books Erasmus a harsh critic People begin reading the Bible on their own 4. Martin Luther Was a devout Catholic, served as a monk, tried to continually bring himself closer to God Struggled with his faith Puzzled and inspired by The just shall live by faith Angered by Johann Tetzel 5. Johann Tetzel Sale of Indulgences Heaven Insurance for youand your loved ones dead or alive! No sooner than the cofferring, than a soul frompurgatory doth spring 6. The 95 Theses Nails his Ninety-five Theses tohttp://media- cdn.tripadvisor.cthe door of the Castle Church in om/media/photo- s/01/63/41/87/95Wittenberg, Germany on All -thesis-of-martin- luther.jpgHallows Eve, 1517 Salvation by faith alone; heopposed the Catholic Churchsbeliefs in penance and goodworks Bible is the only authority forChristian life; Pope is a falseauthority Priesthood of all believers each person should have anindividual relationship with Godand should read/interpret theBible for him/herself All people are equal in the eyesof God 7. Luthers ideas diffuse quickly Wrote many books, essays, and letters whichare quickly printed and spread throughout Luther was not easily silenced he ideas shakeEurope He did not originally intend to start an entirenew branch of Christianity 8. Pope Leo X Giovanni de Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent Pope Leo X issues a Papal Bull June 15,1520 and threatens to excommunicate Luther unless he recanted Luther and his students at the University of Witten berg burned the Papal Bull in a bonfire Pope excommunicates Luther 9. Who do you think said this? A single friar who goes counter toall Christianity for a thousand yearsmust be wrongI will proceedagainst him as a notorious heretic 10. Charles V HRE 1521 summons Luther to the Imperial Diet atWorms to stand trial Refuses to recant his ideas, Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plainreasonmy conscience is captive to the Wordof God. I cannot and I will not recant anything,for to go against conscience is neither right norsafe. Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise.Amen. Charles V replies A single friar who goes counter to allChristianity for a thousand years must bewrongI will proceed against him as anotorious heretic Charles V issues Edict of Worms declaringLuther an outlaw and heretic 11. Frederick the Wise German prince of Saxony,protects Luther in his castle for the first year afterthe Diet of Worms Spendsthe year translating the New Testament intoGerman Luthers ideas were practiced priests beganleading worship in German, calling themselvesministers People give up on trying to reform the CatholicChurch and become a group known as Lutherans 12. Group of princes loyal to the Pope join forces andcreate an alliance against Luthers ideas The princes who support Luther sign a statementprotesting this alliance become known as theProtestants 13. Spreading Luthers Ideas Luther becomes friends with Erasmus who refused tofully support the Reformation Rising humanistic influences lead people toemphasize the role man should play in religion Peasants embrace the ideas and Luthers criticismsof monastic landowners; rebel and solicit Lutherssupport; demand release from serfdom WritesAgainst the Robbing and Murdering Hordes ofPeasants to the nobles; denounces peasants Why? He needs the princes support for Protestantism to survive 14. Spreading Ideas, cont. European rulers want to reduce the influence of the Church and theHRE Princes continue to protect Luther from the Catholics What is in it for the princes? Want to weaken the HRE. Want as much power as possible. Diet of Speyer 1526 Emperor (distracted) agrees that each German territory was free to enforce the Edict of Worms against Luther Gives the German princes territorial sovereignty in religious matters Buys the Reformation concepts to take hold in Germany and Switzerland 15. Women and the Reformation Which idea do you think appealed to women the most? Concept of equality in Gods eyes Protestant teachings emphasized more compassionatemarriages More compassionate Increased education for women More grounds for divorce if a husband violated his vows During the early years, women were major writers andpreachers As Protestant groups become more formal, womensopportunities decrease 16. Religious Warfare Charles V decides to fight against the Protestants Diet at Augsburg 1530 meeting of the princes Diet ended with a blunt order to revert Lutherans to Catholicism Augsburg Confession Protestants enter a defensive alliance called theSchmalkaldic League Schmalkaldic Articles Luther League reaches a stalemate with Charles V 1547 Charles V unleashes the military on the Protestants, crush theSchmalkaldic League, imperial law mandates Protestants reconvert Peace of Augsburg 1552 allows each German ruler to decide what theirregions religion will be Latin phrase cuius regio, eius religo he who rules establishes religion Technically only allows Lutheranism or Catholicism Ecclesiastical reservation added prevents converters from taking church lands with them 17. Charles is worn out Gave Spain (including land in the Americas, part ofItaly, and the Netherlands, to his son Philip II Holy Roman Empire to Ferdinand Retires to a monastery in Spain before dying in1558 18. The Reformation Ripple For each of the following construct a chart thataddresses: Who, where, and when What they believed Significance in the Protestant Reformation and beyond Zwingli John Calvin Anabaptists John Knox Henry VIII 19. Reformation Skits Please write a script for a skit that demonstrates thedialogue for 2-4 Protestant Reformationtheologians (depends on group size) and onepolitical figure. You may choose the setting and the purpose of themeeting/dialogue, but must have a dialogue thatdemonstrates an understanding of the differentreformation ideas and challenges. Each dialogue should last 4-5 minutes. Everyonemust have a speaking part. 20. Ulrich Zwingli First major reformer to follow Luther(no denomination though) Preached in Zurich, ideas spreadoutward to Switzerland and S.Germany community discipline Churches become morepuritanical Transubstantiation?Consubstantiation? Symbolic? 21. John Calvin The Elect Predestination City of Saints set up a model govt in Geneva Inspires Puritanism 22. John Knox Inspired by Calvin Brings Protestantism toScotland Presbyters Leads a coup detat tooverthrow Mary Stuart Nationalizes Calvinism 23. Henry VIII Overview: Six Wives Catherine of Aragon divorced (1533) Daughter - Mary Anne Boleyn beheaded (unjustly accused of adultery) Daughter Elizabeth Jane Seymour died (12 days after giving birth) Son - Edward Anne of Cleves divorced Catherine Howard beheaded (actual adultery) Catherine Parr - survived 24. The Church of England Requested divorce from Pope Clement VII Asks Cardinal Wolsey for the same, fires him Charles V (Cath. Of Aragons nephew) marched into Rome and held thePope hostage to prevent divorce Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer will annul the marriage Reformation Parliament Asks them to strip the Popes power in England Legalize Henrys divorce, Pope not supposed to interfere Act of Supremacy 1534 Declares King as the head of Englands Church 25. William Tyndale new English version of the Bible Henry VIII ClosedCatholic monasteries and other church lands Sells the land for profit Church of England (Anglican or Episcopal) Six Articles affirm CofE doctrines celibacy, literal confession etc (this will change) 26. Kidsments/king_edwardVI_gallery.htm Edward VI crowned at 9 reigned for six years 1st Protestant King Mary Bloody Mary Reignedfive years M. Felipe II of Spain Very Catholic Had over 300 murdered ermine.jpg Elizabeth The VirginQueen 27. Elizabeth I Converts England back to Protestantism for good. Church of England 39 Articles define Anglican doctrine Move away from some traditional Catholic practices (literal confession, Latin, allegiance to the Pope, clerical celibacy, etc) Include elements of Protestantism Book of Common Prayer Created under Edward VI Officialized under Elizabeth I 28. The Spread of Protestantism 29. Protestant Work Ethic Protestant Bourgeoisie middle class (especially in the North) tended toreact against authority (like the Church and the Nobility); thus, they usuallychose to become Protestant A new value system develops Every man (rich or poor) can serve God in his job Labor and thrift are Godly virtues Profits are permissible if used to benefit society and to glorify God Results? Explosion of capitalism from Dutch, English, and Swiss Protestants Capitalism = economy based on competition and individual acheivement Protestant Work Ethic 30. Don Quixote Miguel de Cervantes William Shakespeare