3. The Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum Only green and blue wavelengths pass through water a great distance.
4. Light Penetration in the Ocean
5. What color/wavelength of light will animals use? dysphotic
6. Types of light production: 1. incandescence light bulb 2. luminescence- fluorescence bulb What is the difference between these types of light? Bioluminescence: a chemical reaction
7. What organisms that you know of have bioluminescence? Bioluminescence evolved in several kingdoms. Evolution: In early evolution, O2 was toxic. Some organisms were able to convert it to a nontoxic substance, which had the tendency to produce photons of light. This may have had a selective advantage to some organisms. Not found in freshwater organisms.
8. luciferase Luciferin + O2 oxyluciferin + light
9. Bacterial Intrinsic Photobacterium
10. (bacterial) Light emitting organ
11. Cephalopod Photophore
12. Examples of Bacterial Photophores: fish, few squid, Pyrosoma (tunicate) How do they get bacteria? organ open to exterior (provide entrance for bacteria to enter) potentially continuous luminescence Pyrosoma
13. Bacterial photophores- 3 genera Photobacterium (symbiotic relationship) Achromabacteria (2 types of squid use bacteria, the rest (17) have make their own luminescence) Beneckea (not associated with symbiotic relationship) Squid Euprymna- squid hatches w/out bacteria; w/in hours it is infected w/natural populations of bacteria
14. Tunicate- Pyrosoma- bacterial symbiont (intracellular) Examples of fish that have bacterial photophores: Anglerfish (ceratioids) Pinecone fish (Monocentrids) Lantern eyes/flashlightfish (Anomalopids) Ponyfishes/slipmouths (Leiognathids) Ichthyococcus
15. Intrinsic photophores: 1. Widely distributed, ex. Cookie cutter shark 2. Numerous photophores 1000s 3. Make own luminescence 4. Control output of light (on and off)
16. Control of Bioluminescence: They can control biolum intensity by controlling blood supply to light organ (i.e., control the amt of O2 -- O2 decreases light intensity decreases) Light control using a shield Lid Vascular control Rotation of organ
17. Reproductive advantage Countershading Escape and avoid predation Species recognition Feeding In evolution
18. Some mesopelagic copepod species are red/black in color. Why?
19. Malacosteus (dragonfish)
20. squids- looking for mates.
21. Some predators can lure prey by mimicking signals of prey. Other predators dangle a lure to attract prey.
22. mid-water squid releases a bioluminescent cloud to startle and confuse predators. Photoblepharon- blink and run method.
23. Duncecap or helmet jelly Periphylla periphylla
24. Bamboo coral Keratoisis flexibilis
25. ostracod Dinoflagellate Ctenophore
27. Firefly squid Deep sea squid
28. Deep sea glass squid Teuthowenia pellucida
29. Deep sea gulper Photophores on ventral surface
30. Deep sea viper fish & deep sea shrimp
31. Black Devil Angler Fish lure
32. angler fish
33. Inquiry 1. Define bioluminescence. 2. Who produces bioluminescence? 3. What is the difference between intrinsic and bacterial bioluminescence? 4. What is the blink and run method? 5. What is countershading? 6. What is the evolutionary advantage of bioluminescence in bacteria?