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Autism and Challenging Behaviors in the Classroom

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  • 1. Challenging Behavior

2. ABC 3-term ContingencyAntecedent-Behavior-ConsequenceAntecedent: anything that happens before thebehaviorBehavior: any observable act of the individualConsequence: anything that happens after thebehavior 3. Notes on Reinforcement Any change in the environment thatincreases the future probability of behavior. Can include the addition of good things. Can include the removal of aversive things. Undesirable attention such as reprimandscan be reinforcing. Reinforcement can be delivered by othersand can result from engaging in activitiesthat do not involve other people. 4. Instructional ControlDefinitionThe likelihood that your instructions willgenerate a correct response from your learner.Conditioning the instructional setting as asource of reinforcement for the 5. Behavior and Cooperation Problem behavior often occurs because theteaching environment has been paired withworsening conditions for the student. Learners will be more likely to cooperate ifthe environment where teaching occurs hasbeen paired with their favorite things and isreinforced, bettering conditions. 6. Things to Avoid Free access to motivating items/reinforcers. Placing too many or too difficult demands. Reinforcing problem behavior. Not reinforcing quickly enough. Misidentifying motivating items (preferencesvs. reinforcers) Introducing too many new/unknown tasks -introducing new/hard tasks beforeinstructional control has been established! 7. Preference Assessments Choices that are activities create limitedoptions and create a challenge to use as areward. In one study the total accuracy of asking astudent what they like and the item actuallyserving as a reinforcer was 57%. Preference assessments are not the same asreinforcer assessments, they are just aprediction. 8. Descriptive and Functional Assessment 9. Why Behavior Occurs Curriculum Issues - too easy or too hard. Unclear expectations. Inability to communicate wants and needs. Environment has a history of negativity. Social challenges. Repetitive/Restrictive behaviors increaseresistance to change. 10. Prevent Challenging Behavior Keep student engaged and busy. Plan for change and transitions. Use effective instruction. Make sure ongoing appropriate behaviorresults in things getting better for child (usereinforcement). Look at child when delivering reinforcement,not when problem behavior occurs. 11. Defining the Problem There are reasons for behavior (it is notrandom). Problem behavior helps the individual insome way (at least in the short run). Frequently there is no effective alternativeskill that works for the child. If the behavior makes things better, even fora little while, the behavior will likely occuragain in the future. 12. Descriptive Assessment Clearly Define Behavior FAST MAS Functional Assessment Interview (FAI) 13. Function BasedInterventions 14. Behavior Intervention PlansFour areas to addressAntecedent interventions prevention.Training and teaching - alternative behavioras a replacement.Consequence interventions - carefullyselected.Identify what to avoid - keep everyoneworking with the student on the same page. 15. Function of Behavior -Gain Attention Possible causes? How is it reinforced? What can be changed? 16. Behavior - Gain Attention Prevention Non-contingent attention (give attention forfree on a schedule). Provide lots of reinforcement forappropriately requesting attention or otheritems, as well as for independently engagingin activities. Be consistent and sincere. 17. At first may need to reinforce gainingattention appropriately every time. Once the appropriate behavior is occurring,fade reinforcement gradually over time (maynot be able to ever completely fade allreinforcement). Arrange the environment so that the child isengaged during times when you cannotprovide direct attention 18. Behavior - Gain Attention Replacement Teach requesting skills across a broad rangeof categories (items, activities, people) Teach waiting for attention Provide more valuable reinforcers forengaging in appropriate attention seekingbehaviors or other appropriate behaviors(preference ranking). 19. Provide sufficient opportunities topractice/contrive the environment Social Skills Training 20. Behavior - Gain Attention Consequence Differential Reinforcement(DRO/DRL/DRA) - Resources here to findmore information/website Extinction (planned ignoring) Blocking/Interruption - following byredirection or correction Time-out (teacher-initiated time-away-teacher turns away) 21. Behavior - Gain Attention Avoid Avoid giving attention/reinforcers when thechild is engaging in problem behaviors. Avoid reinforcing as soon as the behaviorstops (wait a few seconds). When needed,prompt an appropriate behavior, thenreinforce that behavior. Avoid direct eye contact and dialogue aboutthe problem behavior but monitor child. Thisdialogue is non-productive and providesadded attention to the problem behavior. 22. Function of Behavior Gain Tangible Item Possible Causes? 23. Behavior - Gain Tangible ItemPrevention Non-contingent access to an activity(schedule time with these items) Utilize items as reinforcers (initially highratios, fade) Visual supports indicating when access isavailable Use of a promise reinforcer 24. Behavior - Gain Tangible ItemReplacement Teach functional communication skills Requesting tangible items Requesting more time with an item/activity-Wh Questions - When/What can I have? Teaching waiting (activity might beavailable, but not immediately) 25. Behavior - Gain Tangible ItemConsequence Implement a token economy/response cost Blocking/Interruption Time-out from activity - loss of activity is aresult of challenging behavior 26. Behavior - Gain Tangible ItemAvoid Providing access to desired item following achallenging behavior Passage of too much time or requiring toomany demands/tasks before allowing accessto tangible 27. Assuming the learner knows when access iscoming/item is available Assuming the learner can ask for what theywant (even if they have asked in the past) 28. Function of Behavior - EscapePossible CausesThings are too hard for the child and/or out ofdevelopmental sequence. (i.e. language abilitydoes not support instructional or task level).Things require too much effort.Too many demands at once.Makes lots of errors and not successful. 29. Activities and/or instructions are too long. Activity/event is slow paced. Activity has no value to the child. Demand results in interruption or delay ofpreferred activity. 30. Behavior - Escape Prevention Gain instructional control. PAIRING - Pair yourself, desk, school,materials, etc. Allow for reinforcers to remain in or nearwork areas. Help the child be successful and experiencelots of reinforcement for success. 31. Use developmentally sequenced curriculumthat is relevant to the child - use what theylike. Build on success and fade in demands. Make it easy for the child to respond -gradually increase difficulty. Reduce errors by providing prompts ifnecessary. 32. Mix and vary effort -easy/hard/intermediate. Be realistic with length of time the student isexpected to stay engaged - scaffolding andvisual supports. Offer choices (which work do you want todo?). 33. Behavior - Escape Replacement Teach the student to request a break or time-away appropriately - Teach student to acceptlimited # of breaks Teach learner to ask for help (help withspecific) Teach student to make a choice Teach student to indicate yes/no 34. NOTE: Make sure things are a lot better forthe student when he/she cooperated vs. whenproblem behavior occurs. 35. Behavior - Escape Consequence When possible, do not allow the problembehavior to result in removal of the task ordemand modify the task. Redirect the student to take a break orrequest help (reinforcing communicationeven if assisted). Redirect to visual support indicating howmuch work there is or time before a break orthe reinforcement. 36. A note on consequences:You may need to reinforce the earliest (and lessproblematic) problem behavior in a chain ofchallenging behaviors. 37. Behavior - Escape Avoid Allowing access to preferred items during abreak. Removing all preferred items from area orhousing them in another room or location they should be on hand but unavailable. Requiring work that is too easy, too hard, tooslow, or too fast-paced. 38. Requiring too many tasks/demands beforeallowing access to a break/escape. Scheduling back-to-back less preferredactivities for the student. 39. Function of Behavior - Automatic Repetitive Sensory Possible Causes? 40. Behavior Repetitive Sensory Replacement Keep student actively engaged. Identify competing reinforcers andallow/provide many opportunities forstudent to access other reinforcers. Minimize effects by using protectiveequipment (gloves, arm guards, helmet, etc.) Identify and promote stimulus conditions -behavior may be acceptable in somescenarios, but not others (masturbation). 41. Introduce sensory-related activities/diet Teach exercise routines or activities thatpromote increased motor activity Teach an alternative behavior that simulateschallenging behavior, but is sociallyacceptable Teach requesting of these activities Teach student how to request and accesssensory activities Teach stimulus discrimination 42. Behavior Repetitive Sensory Consequence Blocking/Interruption - redirect tocompeting activity. Sensory extinction (if access to reinforcercan be prevented). 43. Behavior Repetitive Sensory Avoid Verbally reprimanding the child for engagingin the behavior Extinction (self-injurious behavior or whenengaging in activity can not be prevented) 44. Behavior Plans Function matches intervention! Redeploy Cardadults have a signal or card to indicate to another staff member that they are having problems staying neutral with

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