Bio Mass Industries

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  • 1. BioMass Industries Prepared by Tim Castleman To Promote a Renewable Resource SystemUsing Fibrous Crops such as Hemp and Kenaf Copyright 2002, Tim Castleman, Arizona Fuel and Fiber Company, LLC1058 N. Higley Rd. Suite #108-160, Mesa, Arizona85205 480-804-9555 Fax: 208-979-9846

2. Purpose of presentation

  • To describe BioMass Industries
  • Describe their products
  • Describe profitablebusiness models for BioMass Industry
  • Discuss how to develop a BioMass industry

3. BioMass Defined

  • Biomass is any plant or tree matter in large quantity. It is used in a variety of ways as a feedstock for numerous industrial processes now. These include food processing, papermaking, electricity generation, building materials and pharmaceuticals to name a few.

4. The Biobased Products and Bioenergy Vision

  • Biomass resources naturally abundant throughout our nation will be a cornerstone of a new energy economy in the United States. An integrated biobased products and bioenergy industry will produce power, fuels, chemicals, and materials from crops, trees, and wastes, helping to grow the U.S. economy, strengthen U.S. energy security, protect the environment, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and revitalize rural America.
  • Visionary Goals
  • By 2010, increase the use of biobased products and bioenergy in the U.S. by 3-fold over 2000 levels.
  • By 2020, increase the use of biobased products and bioenergy in the U.S. by 10-fold over 2000 levels.
  • With this significant increase, biomass would account for 25 percent of our nations total energy consumption (including feedstocks). The U.S. would create the foundation for a secure energy future and establish its worldwide leadership in biobased products and bioenergy technologies.
  • By 2050, increase the use of biobased products and bioenergy in the U.S. by another 2-fold to 3-fold over 2020 levels. At this level, biomass would account for as much as 50 percent of our nations total energy consumption (including feedstocks). The U.S. would have the capacity to be fully energy-independent, and U.S. companies would be dominant players in substantial worldwide markets for systems and services
  • related to biobased products and bioenergy.

5. What are some BioMass Industries?

  • BioMass Fuel
    • Gasification/Pyrolysis
      • Producer gas
      • Methanol
    • Ethanol
      • Acid Hydrolysis
      • Cellulosic Hydrolysis
    • Diesel
      • Oilseed crops
      • Oil producing trees and crops
    • Methane
      • Anaerobic digestion
      • Municipal Waste Treatment

6. What are some BioMass Industries?

    • Electricity
      • Use methane produced by anaerobic digester
        • Right now,ONSI Corporationin Windsor, Conn., a subsidiary of International Fuel Cells, is the onlycommercial manufacturer of fuel cells . Seventy-four of its units, each the size of a minivan, are now in operation, often in locations such as hospitals and remote hotels where grid power is expensive and reliability is worth a premium. (An ONSI installation in Groton, Conn., is consumingmethanefrom a landfill, thereby both generating power and siphoning off an explosive waste gas; the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting a similar project.) Each cell provides 200 kilowatts of power; the heat each produces can also be used to warm buildings, an approach known as cogeneration. ONSI's marketing manager, Gregory J. Sandelli, states that in 1.25 million hours of total use, his company's cells have remained in operation 95 percent of the time--a figure that bests on-site, diesel-powered generators. The units, which usephosphoric acidas an electrolyte, are designed to last 20 years.*
    • Co-fire with coal to reduce stack gas emissions
    • Direct combustion for heat & power

* Source: 7. More BioMass Industries

  • Textiles
      • Technical & Industrial fabrics
      • Geo-textiles
      • Cordage
  • Composites
      • Building materials
      • Injection molded (Automotive parts)
      • Polymers or binders,biodegradable plastic
  • Absorbents
      • Oil absorbent can then be combusted with coal to make power
      • Bioremediation of contaminated soils
  • Paper products
      • High quality paper high value pulp
      • Newsprint and other high volume papers
      • Add fiber to recycled paper to extend life

8. The Technology Exists But Why Few Viable Industries?

  • Individually BioMass products cannot compete price wise with timber/petroleum based products.
    • Artificial price is supported by government subsidies that have continued long past intended time period.
    • Financial planning, analysis and forecasting fail to include social and environmental costs.
    • Bankers reluctant to invest capital into infrastructure
  • Cannot compete with government subsidized forestry and petroleum products

9. Full Life Cycle Analysis Historic planning,accounting, and analysis often fail to consider the environmental and social costs Cost to manufacture,market, distribute and use a product Cost to Dispose of product Effect of toxic materials in disposal facilities Initial cost to environment Use of natural resources Defense Budget 10. Effect of Full Life Cycle Analysis A new [1993] report from the respected Environment and Forecasting Institute in Heidelberg, Germany puts the car right back at thecentre of the transport debate and raises fundamental questions about a society increasingly adapting itself to the car. The Germananalysts take a medium-sized car and assume that it is driven for 13,000 km a year for 10 years. They then compute its financial,environmental and health impacts "from cradle to grave". Long before the car has got to the showroom, they find it has produced significant amounts of damage to air, water and landecosystems. Each car produced in Germany (where environmental standards are among the world's highest), produces 25,000 kg of waste and 422 million cubic metres of polluted air in the extraction of raw materials alone, say the Heidelberg researchers. 11.

  • Each car is moreover responsible for 1,016 million cubic metres of polluted air and a number of abrasion products from tyres, brakes and road surfaces;
  • 17,500 grams of road surface abrasion products;
  • 750 grams of tyre abrasion products;
  • 150 grams of brake abrasion products.
  • Each car also pollutes soils and groundwater and this calculated for oil, cadmium, chrome, lead, copper and zinc.
  • The environmental impact continues beyond the end of the car's useful life. Disposal of the vehicle produces a further 102 million cubic metres of polluted air and quantities of PCBs and hydrocarbons.
  • The sum of these different life cycle stages produces some insights into the penalties societies must face if they become car dependent.
  • In total, each car produces 59.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide and 2,040 million cubic metres of polluted air. Each car, say the Germans, produces 26.5 tonnes of rubbish to add to the enormous problems of disposal and landfill management faced by most local authorities.


  • While this detail is impressive (and wholly absent from the environmental claims of motor vehicle manufacturers and motoring organisations), it is still not complete. Some of the more startling revelations are in the researchers' wider analysis of social and environmental costs.
  • Germany suffers from extensive forest damage attributed to acid rain and vehicle exhaust emissions. The Heidelberg researchers calculate that each car in its lifetime is responsible for three dead trees and 30 "sick" trees. [...]
  • The Heidelberg researchers say that over its lifetime, each car is responsible for 820 hours of life lost through a road traffic accident fatality and 2,800 hours of life damaged by a road traffic accident. Statistically, they suggest, one individual in every 100 will be killed in a road traffic accident and two out of every three injured. Translated into vehicle numbers, this means:
  • Ever