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  • 1. Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to PracticeWritten By: Jack C Richards

2. Brown and Yule (1983) distinguished the difference between the interactional function of speaking and transactional functions. 3. Expanded version of Brown & Yules framework (after Jones 1996 & Burns 1998) Three Types of Talk:

  • Talk as interaction
  • Talk as transaction
  • Talk as performance

4. Talk as Interaction

  • This type of talk describes interactions which serves as a social function(conversation).

5. Features of Talk as Interaction Richards (p.2)

  • ~Has a primary social function
  • ~Reflects role relationships
  • ~Reflects speakers identity
  • ~May be formal or casual
  • ~Uses conversational conventions
  • ~Reflect degrees of politeness
  • ~Employs many generic words
  • ~Uses conversational register
  • ~Is jointly constructed

6. Skills Involved in Using Talk asInteraction Richards (p.3)

  • Opening and Closing Conversations
  • Choosing Topics
  • Making Small Talk
  • Recounting personal incidents and experiences
  • Turn-talking
  • Using adjacency-pairs
  • Interrupting
  • Reacting to others

7. Talk as Interaction

  • There are 2 focuses of talk as transaction:
    • 1.) Focus 1 =giving and receiving information and the focus is on what is said or achieved.
    • Example: Asking someone for the time.
    • 2.) Focus 2= obtaining goods or services.
    • Example: Checking into a hotel room.

8. Talk as Transaction

  • This type of talk focuses on what is said or done.
  • The focus is to be clear and accurate during talk.

9. The Main Features of Talk as Transaction are: Richards (p.4)

  • It has a primary information focus
  • The main focus is the message and not the participants
  • Participants employ communication strategies to make themselves understood
  • There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks
  • There may be negotiations and digression
  • Linguistic accuracy is not always important

10. Skills Involved in Using Talk as Transaction Richards (p.4)

  • Explaining a need or intention
  • Describing something
  • Asking questions
  • Confirming information
  • Justifying an opinion
  • Making suggestions
  • Clarifying understanding
  • Making comparisons
  • Agreeing and disagreeing

11. Talk as Performance

  • This type of talk transmits information before an audience such as morning talks, public announcement, and speeches.

12. The Main Features of Talk asPerformance Richards (p. 5)

  • There is a focus on both message and audience
  • It reflects organization and sequencing
  • Form and accuracy is important
  • Language is more like written language
  • It is often monologic

13. Skills Involved in Talk a a Performance Richards (p.5)

  • Using an appropriate format
  • Presenting information in an appropriate sequence
  • Maintaining audience engagement
  • Using correct pronunciation and grammar
  • Creating an effect on the audience
  • Using appropriate vocabulary
  • Using appropriate opening and closing

14. Implications for Teaching

  • Talk as an interaction can be taught through providing examples embedded in naturalistic dialogs.
  • Talk as transaction can be taught by providing sources for practicing how to use talk for sharing and obtaining information.
  • Talk as performance can be taught by providing examples or models of speeches, oral presentations, videos, and audio recordings.