1. Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to PracticeWritten By: Jack C Richards
2. Brown and Yule (1983) distinguished the difference between the interactional function of speaking and transactional functions. 3. Expanded version of Brown & Yules framework (after Jones 1996 & Burns 1998) Three Types of Talk:
Talk as interaction
Talk as transaction
Talk as performance
4. Talk as Interaction
This type of talk describes interactions which serves as a social function(conversation).
5. Features of Talk as Interaction Richards (p.2)
~Has a primary social function
~Reflects role relationships
~Reflects speakers identity
~May be formal or casual
~Uses conversational conventions
~Reflect degrees of politeness
~Employs many generic words
~Uses conversational register
~Is jointly constructed
6. Skills Involved in Using Talk asInteraction Richards (p.3)
Opening and Closing Conversations
Making Small Talk
Recounting personal incidents and experiences
Reacting to others
7. Talk as Interaction
There are 2 focuses of talk as transaction:
1.) Focus 1 =giving and receiving information and the focus is on what is said or achieved.
Example: Asking someone for the time.
2.) Focus 2= obtaining goods or services.
Example: Checking into a hotel room.
8. Talk as Transaction
This type of talk focuses on what is said or done.
The focus is to be clear and accurate during talk.
9. The Main Features of Talk as Transaction are: Richards (p.4)
It has a primary information focus
The main focus is the message and not the participants
Participants employ communication strategies to make themselves understood
There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks
There may be negotiations and digression
Linguistic accuracy is not always important
10. Skills Involved in Using Talk as Transaction Richards (p.4)
Explaining a need or intention
Justifying an opinion
Agreeing and disagreeing
11. Talk as Performance
This type of talk transmits information before an audience such as morning talks, public announcement, and speeches.
12. The Main Features of Talk asPerformance Richards (p. 5)
There is a focus on both message and audience
It reflects organization and sequencing
Form and accuracy is important
Language is more like written language
It is often monologic
13. Skills Involved in Talk a a Performance Richards (p.5)
Using an appropriate format
Presenting information in an appropriate sequence
Maintaining audience engagement
Using correct pronunciation and grammar
Creating an effect on the audience
Using appropriate vocabulary
Using appropriate opening and closing
14. Implications for Teaching
Talk as an interaction can be taught through providing examples embedded in naturalistic dialogs.
Talk as transaction can be taught by providing sources for practicing how to use talk for sharing and obtaining information.
Talk as performance can be taught by providing examples or models of speeches, oral presentations, videos, and audio recordings.