Cloud Computing: Overview and Examples

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<ul><li><p>1 / 116</p><p>Overview &amp; Examples</p><p>CloudComputingDr.-Ing. Eueung Mulyanahttps://eueung.github.io/ET3010ET-3010 | Attribution-ShareAlike CC BY-SA</p><p>https://github.com/eueunghttps://eueung.github.io/ET3010https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/</p></li><li><p>Outline</p><p>Introduction</p><p>Computing at Scale</p><p>Cloud Infrastructure</p><p>Public Cloud Examples</p><p>2 / 116</p></li><li><p>Introduction</p><p>3 / 116</p></li><li><p>4 / 116</p><p>CloudComputing</p><p>1. Trends2. Terms &amp; Denitions3. Reasons / Benets4. Types of Cloud Services5. Types of Cloud Deployments6. Uses of Cloud Computing7. Common Interpretations</p></li><li><p>Trends</p><p>5 / 116</p></li><li><p>Google Trends (2004 - 2017/4)6 / 116</p></li><li><p>Cloud Computing vs. IoT7 / 116</p></li><li><p>Denitions</p><p>8 / 116</p></li><li><p>In Our Previous TalksCloud - General term referring to a system box contained everything necessary to run the service 9 / 116</p></li><li><p>In Our Previous TalksClouds in Cloud : System 10 / 116</p></li><li><p>11 / 116</p><p>NIST (National Institute of Standardand Technology) Denition</p><p>5 Essential Characteristics3 Service / Delivery Models</p><p>4 Deployment ModelsKey Enablers: fast networks, powerful servers, high-</p><p>performance virtualization etc.</p><p>Cloud</p><p>ComputingCloud Computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous,convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool ofcongurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers,storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidlyprovisioned and released with minimal management eort orservice provider interaction.</p></li><li><p>12 / 116</p></li><li><p>13 / 116</p><p>Cloud Computing, often referred to as simply "thecloud", is the delivery of on-demand computingresources (everything from applications to data</p><p>centers) over the Internet on a pay-for-use basis.</p><p>Computing as a service overthe Internet</p><p>Elastic Resources : Scale up or down quickly and easily tomeet demand</p><p>Metered Service : You only pay for what you useSelf Service : All the IT resources you need with self-</p><p>service access</p><p>Ref: IBM</p><p>Cloud</p><p>ComputingCloud Computing (also called simply, "the cloud") describes the act of storing, managingand processing data online - as opposed to on your own physical computer or network(Ref: Rackspace).</p><p>Cloud Computing is the on-demand delivery of computepower, database storage, applications, and other IT resourcesthrough a cloud services platform via the internet with pay-as-you-go pricing (Ref: AWS).</p><p>https://www.ibm.com/cloud-computing/learn-more/what-is-cloud-computing/https://www.rackspace.com/cloud/cloud-computinghttps://aws.amazon.com/what-is-cloud-computing/</p></li><li><p>14 / 116</p><p>CloudComputing</p><p>How does it work?Cloud computing services all work a little dierently,depending on the provider.Many provide a friendly, browser-based dashboard thatmakes it easier for IT professionals and developers toorder resources and manage their accounts.Some cloud computing services are also designed to workwith REST APIs and a command-line interface (CLI), givingdevelopers multiple options.</p><p>Ref: Microsoft</p><p>https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-cloud-computing/</p></li><li><p>Benets</p><p>15 / 116</p></li><li><p>16 / 116</p><p>CloudComputing</p><p>The rst cloud computing services are barely a decadeold, but already a variety of organisations - from tiny</p><p>startups to global corporations, government agenciesto non-prots - are embracing the technology for all</p><p>sorts of reasons.</p><p>Ref: Microsoft</p><p>Benets1. Cost2. Speed3. Scalability4. Productivity5. Performance6. Reliability</p><p>https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-cloud-computing/</p></li><li><p>17 / 116</p><p>CloudBenets</p><p>Ref: Microsoft</p><p>CostCloud computing eliminates the capital expense of buying hardware and software andsetting up and running on-site datacenters - the racks of servers, the round-the-clockelectricity for power and cooling, the IT experts for managing the infrastructure.</p><p>SpeedMost cloud computing services are provided self service and on demand, so even vastamounts of computing resources can be provisioned in minutes, typically with just a fewmouse clicks, giving businesses a lot of exibility and taking the pressure o capacityplanning.</p><p>ScalabilityThe benets of cloud computing services include the ability to scale elastically. In cloudspeak, that means delivering the right amount of IT resources - for example, more or lesscomputing power, storage, bandwidth - right when its needed and from the rightgeographic location.</p><p>https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-cloud-computing/</p></li><li><p>18 / 116</p><p>CloudBenets</p><p>Ref: Microsoft</p><p>ProductivityOn-site datacenters typically require a lot of "racking and stacking" - hardware set up,software patching and other time-consuming IT management chores. Cloud computingremoves the need for many of these tasks, so IT teams can spend time on achieving moreimportant business goals.</p><p>PerformanceThe biggest cloud computing services run on a worldwide network of secure datacenters,which are regularly upgraded to the latest generation of fast and ecient computinghardware. This oers several benets over a single corporate datacenter, includingreduced network latency for applications and greater economies of scale.</p><p>ReliabilityCloud computing makes data backup, disaster recovery and business continuity easierand less expensive, because data can be mirrored at multiple redundant sites on thecloud provider's network.</p><p>https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-cloud-computing/</p></li><li><p>Services(Delivery Models)</p><p>19 / 116</p></li><li><p>20 / 116</p><p>CloudComputing</p><p>Most cloud computing services fall into three broadcategories: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platformas a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (Saas).</p><p>These are sometimes called the Cloud ComputingStack, because they build on top of one another.</p><p>Ref: Microsoft</p><p>Types of Cloud</p><p>Services1. IaaS2. PaaS3. SaaS</p><p>https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-cloud-computing/</p></li><li><p>21 / 116</p></li><li><p>22 / 116</p><p>CloudServices</p><p>Ref: Microsoft</p><p>IaaS The most basic category of cloud computing services. With IaaS, you rent IT infrastructure- servers and virtual machines (VMs), storage, networks, operating systems - from acloud provider on a pay-as-you-go basis.</p><p>PaaS PaaS refers to cloud computing services that supply an on-demand environment fordeveloping, testing, delivering and managing software applications. PaaS is designed tomake it easier for developers to quickly create web or mobile apps, without worryingabout setting up or managing the underlying infrastructure (and other services) neededfor development.</p><p>SaaS SaaS is a method for delivering software applications over the Internet, on demand andtypically on a subscription basis. With SaaS, cloud providers host and manage thesoftware application and underlying infrastructure and handle any maintenance (eg.upgrades, patching).</p><p>https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-cloud-computing/</p></li><li><p>Hosting &amp; Cloud Software Delivery (Ref: Microsoft)</p><p>23 / 116</p></li><li><p>Deployments</p><p>24 / 116</p></li><li><p>25 / 116</p><p>CloudComputingNot all clouds are the same.</p><p>There are three dierent ways to deploy cloudcomputing resources: public cloud, private cloud and</p><p>hybrid cloud. NIST has dened another type ofdeployment: community cloud.</p><p>Ref: Microsoft</p><p>Types of Cloud</p><p>DeploymentsPublic Cloud Public clouds are owned and operated by a third-party cloud service provider, whichdeliver their computing resources like servers and storage over the Internet. With apublic cloud, all hardware, software and other supporting infrastructure is owned andmanaged by the cloud provider. You access these services and manage your accountusing a web browser.</p><p>https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-cloud-computing/</p></li><li><p>26 / 116</p><p>CloudDeployments</p><p>Ref: Microsoft</p><p>Private Cloud A private cloud refers to cloud computing resources used exclusively by a single businessor organisation. A private cloud can be physically located on the company's on-sitedatacenter (on-site).</p><p>Some companies also pay third-party service providers to host their private cloud(outsourced). A private cloud is one in which the services and infrastructure aremaintained on a private network.</p><p>Hybrid Cloud Hybrid clouds combine public and private clouds, bound together by technology thatallows data and applications to be shared between them. By allowing data andapplications to move between private and public clouds, hybrid cloud gives businessesgreater exibility and more deployment options.</p><p>https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-cloud-computing/</p></li><li><p>27 / 116</p></li><li><p>Uses</p><p>28 / 116</p></li><li><p>29 / 116</p><p>CloudComputing</p><p>You are probably using cloud computing right now,even if you don't realise it. Why??</p><p>If you use an online service to send email, editdocuments, watch movies or TV, listen to music, play</p><p>games or store pictures and other les, it is likely thatcloud computing is making it all possible behind the</p><p>scenes.</p><p>Ref: Microsoft</p><p>Cloud Computing</p><p>UsesExamples of the things we can do with the cloud</p><p>Create new apps and servicesDeliver software on demandStore, back up and recover dataAnalyse data for patterns and make predictionsHost websites and blogsStream audio and video</p><p>https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-cloud-computing/</p></li><li><p>SaaS Examples - Everyday Uses</p><p>30 / 116</p></li><li><p>SaaS Examples - Everyday Uses</p><p>31 / 116</p></li><li><p>PaaS Example - Rovio (Angry Birds)</p><p>32 / 116</p></li><li><p>33 / 116</p><p>Speed &amp; Scalability</p><p>Example"Because our web games are popular</p><p>immediately, we don't have the option of scalingthem over time,"</p><p>"Google App Engine makes the process painless,since it can instantly launch as many servers as we</p><p>need and scale back down when a game haspassed its usage peak."</p><p>Note: App Engine is a PaaS from Google.</p></li><li><p>34 / 116</p><p>Speed &amp; Scalability</p><p>ExampleMillions of gamers have ocked to Rovio's webgames since their launch. The company's mostpopular oering, the Facebook game "Angry BirdsFriends", logs more than 13 million users everymonth. Since the developers don't need to install ormaintain hardware, they can devote their attentionto enhancing the games, which have receivedoverwhelmingly positive reviews.</p><p>Ref: Rovio @ GCP</p><p>https://cloud.google.com/customers/rovio/</p></li><li><p>CommonInterpretations</p><p>35 / 116</p></li><li><p>36 / 116</p><p>CloudComputing</p><p>CommonInterpretations1. Rebranding of Web 2.02. Utility Computing3. Everything as a Service4. Large Data (Big-Data)</p></li><li><p>37 / 116</p><p>CloudInterpretations</p><p>Rebranding Web 2.0 Rich, Interactive, Multi-Device (Web) ApplicationsThe network is the computer!DIY Style/Interface</p><p>Utility Computing Metered Computing Service (Pay-as-You-Go)Dinamic Resource Provisioning (Scaling)</p><p>Everything aaS Mainstream: IaaS, PaaS, SaaSOthers: BaaS, ..</p></li><li><p>38 / 116</p><p>CloudInterpretations</p><p>Large Data (Big-Data) Planet-Scale ServicesData Capture / Analytics / IoT</p><p>ScienceEngineeringCommerceSociety</p></li><li><p>Big-Data | Ref: Jimmy Lin 39 / 116</p><p>https://github.com/lintool</p></li><li><p>Data-Related Activity Every 60s (2014-2016) | Planet-Scale Services | Ref: Smart Insights 40 / 116</p><p>http://www.smartinsights.com/internet-marketing-statistics/happens-online-60-seconds/attachment/what-happens-online-in-60-seconds/</p></li><li><p>Check Point</p><p>41 / 116</p></li><li><p>True or False ?Credits: Freeit Data, Wikimedia, forrestcity 42 / 116</p><p>http://www.freeitdata.com/cloud/https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Clouds_over_Africa.jpghttp://www.forestcityfashionista.com/2013/02/sunny-day-sweepin-clouds-away.html</p></li><li><p>No cloud or clouds?What is cloud? 43 / 116</p></li><li><p>Computing at Scale</p><p>44 / 116</p></li><li><p>45 / 116</p><p>Computingat Scale</p><p>1. Reasons / Needs2. (Hi)Story of Scaling3. Classical Scaling Techniques</p></li><li><p>Needs</p><p>46 / 116</p></li><li><p>47 / 116</p><p>Computingat Scale</p><p>Apps / Services need resources.</p><p>Modern applications require huge amounts ofprocessing and data: PB/EB/+, millions of users,</p><p>billions of objects.</p><p>Needs1. Dynamic Scale of Current</p><p>Apps/Services2. Scale of Future Apps/ServicesHow many Users/Objects? How much Data? How much Computation?</p></li><li><p>(Hi)Story of ScalingFrom Single Computer to Data-Center</p><p>48 / 116</p></li><li><p>One box ts all ...Ref: ud859 49 / 116</p><p>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUvs5-cxEVw</p></li><li><p>As the service grows, we might need several boxes.For space eciency: "Pizza-Style" Boxes (Rack-Mounted) 50 / 116</p></li><li><p>Further growth needs dedicated space and special handling. 51 / 116</p></li><li><p>Scaling UpWhat if one computer is not enough? Buy a server-class computer (bigger cap.)</p><p>What if the biggest one is not enough? Buy many computers (Cluster) 52 / 116</p></li><li><p>Scaling Up - ClusterRef: Haeberlen 53 / 116</p></li><li><p>What if your cluster is too big (hot, power hungry) to t into your oce building?Build a separate building for the cluster. Building can have lots of cooling and power.</p><p>Data-Center54 / 116</p></li><li><p>What if even a data center is not big enough?Build additional data centers. But where? How many? 55 / 116</p></li><li><p>Network of Data-Center - ExampleGlobal DC Network - Ref: Hoezle (Google) 56 / 116</p></li><li><p>Classical ScalingApproaches</p><p>57 / 116</p></li><li><p>58 / 116</p><p>Computingat Scale</p><p>ClassicalScaling Approaches</p><p>Resources are NOT pooledScaling-out are handled by apps or byspecial middlewareLegacy &amp; manual provisioning is mostlyinevitable</p></li><li><p>Scaling | Bare-Metal / Pre-Cloud Virtualization vs. IaaSWhile Clusters / Data-Centers can provide the resources we need, let's take a look at the things to be handled...</p><p>59 / 116</p></li><li><p>60 / 116</p><p>ClassicalScaling Approaches</p><p>Expensive </p><p>Ref: Haeberlen</p><p>1. Need HW Investment2. Need Expertise3. Need Maintenance</p><p>Even a small cluster can easily cost $100,000. A single DC couldbe in the range of around $200 - $500 Millions. Planning andsetting up a large cluster is highly nontrivial. Cluster mayrequire special software, etc. Someone needs to replace faultyhardware, install software upgrades, maintain user accounts,etc.</p></li><li><p>61 / 116</p><p>ClassicalScaling Approaches</p><p>Not Easy to Dimension</p><p>Load can vary considerably!Ref: Haeberlen</p><p>1. Peak load can exceed average load byfactor 2x-10x.</p><p>2. Dilemma: Waste resources or losecustomers!</p></li><li><p>62 / 116</p><p>DimensioningDilemmaProvisioning for the peak(likely to waste resources) vs.provisioning below the peak(likely to lose customers).</p></li><li><p>63 / 116</p><p>ClassicalScaling Approaches</p><p>Not Easy to Execute </p><p>Ref: Haeberlen</p><p>Scaling-UpNeed to order new machines, install them, integrate withexisting cluster - can take weeksLarge scaling factors may require major redesign, e.g., newstorage system, new interconnect, new building (!)</p><p>Scaling-DownWhat to do with superuous hardware?Server idle power is about 60% of peak Energy isconsumed even when no work is being doneMany xed costs, such as construction</p></li><li><p>Cloud Infrastructure</p><p>64 / 116</p></li><li><p>65 / 116</p><p>CloudInfrastructure</p><p>1. Denitions2. Data-Center3. Cloud Software</p></li><li><p>66 / 116</p><p>CloudInfrastructure</p><p>ConventionCloud infrastructure is the collection ofhardware and software which is needed toprovide cloud services e.g. IaaS, PaaS orSaaS.</p><p>Ref: sdxcentral</p><p>https://www.sdxcentral.com/cloud/definitions/cloud-infrastructure-introduction/</p></li><li><p>Hardware | Compute, Storage, NetworkPrimary Components in Data-Center</p><p>67 / 116</p></li><li><p>Software | All Boxes in YellowAbstractions, Management, etc.</p><p>68 / 116</p></li><li><p>69 / 116</p><p>CloudInfrastructure</p><p>Data-CenterA dedicated place/building that houses ITinfrastructure.</p><p>A warehouse-sized "computer".</p><p>A single data center can easily contain 10,000 racks with 100 cores in each rack(1,000,000 cores total). This gure tends to increase over time.</p><p>Ref: Haeberlen, Lin</p></li><li><p>DC Building Blocks | Thousands of Racks (Ref: Lin, Google) 70 / 116</p></li><li><p>Data-Center Organization (Barroso, Hoelzle via Lin) 71 / 116</p></li><li><p>Massive Networking (Credit: Google) 72 / 116</p></li><li><p>Anatomy of Data-Center (Barroso,Hoelzle via Lin) 73 / 116</p></li><li><p>Po...</p></li></ul>